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Contexts for Music Learning and Participation

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Publisher : Springer Nature
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ISBN : 3030482626
Pages : 281 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (482 Download)

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Download Free Contexts for Music Learning and Participation PDF by Andrea Creech Full Book and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2020-07-27 with total page 281 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book sets out a contemporary perspective on music education, highlighting complex intersections between informal, non-formal and formal practices and contexts. At a time when the boundaries between music learning and participation are increasingly blurred, this volume is distinctive in challenging a ‘siloed’ approach to understanding the diverse international music education landscape. Instead, the book proposes a multi-layered continuum of practices that can be applied across a range of formal, informal or non-formal concepts to support the development of musical possible selves. It challenges existing conceptions of learning in music education in part by drawing on research in adult learning, but also by considering the contexts in which learning takes place, and the extent to which this learning can be classified as formal, informal or non-formal.

Download Routledge International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community PDF Full

Routledge International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community

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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN : 1000383083
Pages : 528 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (383 Download)

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Download Free Routledge International Handbook of Music Psychology in Education and the Community PDF by Andrea Creech Full Book and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2021-05-27 with total page 528 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This handbook provides an evidence-based account of psychological perspectives on issues in music education and music in the community through the life course, exploring our understanding of music learning and participation across contexts. The contributors draw on multidisciplinary research from different cultures and contexts in order to set out the implications of music psychology for music education and music in the community. Highlighting the intersecting issues across education and community contexts, the book proposes new theories as well as offering important refinements to existing conceptual models. Split into six parts, it considers the role of music in society as well as for groups and individuals, and explores topics such as processing and responding to music; pedagogical and musical practices that support or pose challenges to the emotional, cognitive, social or physical wellbeing of learners and participants in a range of contexts; and ‘music in identity’ or ‘identity in music’. With the final part on future directions and the implications for professional practice in music education and music in the community, the book concludes by exploring how the two sectors might work more closely together within a post-COVID-19 world. Based on cutting-edge research from an international team, this is essential reading for anyone interested in music psychology, education and community, and it will be particularly helpful for undergraduate and graduate students in music psychology, music education and community music.

Download Education, Music, and the Lives of Undergraduates PDF Full

Education, Music, and the Lives of Undergraduates

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Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
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ISBN : 1350169242
Pages : 184 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (169 Download)

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Download Free Education, Music, and the Lives of Undergraduates PDF by Roger Mantie Full Book and published by Bloomsbury Publishing. This book was released on 2020-12-10 with total page 184 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The undergraduate years are a special time of life for many students. They are a time for study, yes, but also a time for making independent decisions over what to do beyond formal education. This book is based on a nine-year study of collegiate a cappella - a socio-musical practice that has exploded on college campuses since the 1990s. A defining feature of collegiate a cappella is that it is a student-run leisure activity undertaken by undergraduate students at institutions both large and small, prestigious and lower-status. With rare exceptions, participants are not music majors yet many participants interviewed had previous musical experience both in and out of school settings. Motivations for staying musically involved varied considerably - from those who felt they could not imagine life without a musical outlet to those who joined on a whim. Collegiate a cappella is about much more than singing cover songs. It sustains multiple forms of inequality through its audition practices and its performative enactment of gender and heteronormativity. This book sheds light on how undergraduates conceptualize vocation and avocation within the context of formal education, holding implications for educators at all levels.

Download Music Learning and Teaching in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence PDF Full

Music Learning and Teaching in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN : 0190674598
Pages : 368 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (674 Download)

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Download Free Music Learning and Teaching in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence PDF by Gary McPherson Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2018 with total page 368 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music Learning and Teaching in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence is one of five paperback books derived from the foundational two-volume Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Designed for music teachers, students, and scholars of music education, as well as educational administrators and policy makers, the second book in this set explores a broad array of key issues, concepts, and debates related to music learning and teaching in three phases of a child's development. The first section provides an expanded view of infancy and early childhood, embracing a key theme that most young children's early music-making is improvised and used to communicate with others and the self. These chapters demonstrate the importance of "motherese" or "parentese" to young children's overall development, the extraordinary diversity and richness of children's early musical engagement, and how this can be viewed as a resource for further learning. The second section is devoted to the learning and teaching of music during the middle years of childhood, when music is often a mandated part of the school curriculum. While recognizing the enormous cultural and national differences, chapters in this section give an overview of many varied and innovative forms of musical learning and teaching globally. The authors address issues related to the types of teachers who provide music instructions to children internationally, how they were educated and trained, and how various nations organize their curriculum in ways that provide children with access and opportunities to engage with music in the classroom. The third section focuses on the musical experiences and development of adolescents aged 12 to 18. These chapters explore the role of music in the lives of young people-including how they use and relate to music, how music educators can best meet students' needs, and the types of musical engagement that can either empower or disempower students through involvement in school music. Contributors Mayumi Adachi, Randall Everett Allsup, Janet R. Barrett, Margaret S. Barrett, Brydie-Leigh Bartleet, Lily Chen-Hafteck, Richard Colwell, Sharon G. Davis, George M. DeGraffenreid, Steven C. Dillon, Magne I. Espeland, Martin Fautley, Eve Harwood, Lee Higgins, Beatriz Ilari, Neryl Jeanneret, Chee-Hoo Lum, Stephen Malloch, Esther Mang, Kathryn Marsh, Gary E. McPherson, Oscar Odena, Chris Philpott, S. Alex Ruthmann, Eric Shieh, Gary Spruce, Johannella Tafuri, Sandra E. Trehub, Colwyn Trevarthen, Kari K. Veblen, Graham F. Welch, Heidi Westerlund, Jackie Wiggins, Ruth Wright, Susan Young

Download The Oxford Handbook of Music Education PDF Full

The Oxford Handbook of Music Education

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 019990829X
Pages : 992 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (98 Download)

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Download Free The Oxford Handbook of Music Education PDF by Gary E. McPherson Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2012-07-11 with total page 992 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music education takes place in many contexts, both formal and informal. Be it in a school or music studio, while making music with friends or family, or even while travelling in a car, walking through a shopping mall or watching television, our myriad sonic experiences accumulate from the earliest months of life to foster our facility for making sense of the sound worlds in which we live. The Oxford Handbook of Music Education offers a comprehensive overview of the many facets of musical experience, behavior and development in relation to this diverse variety of contexts. In this first of two volumes, an international list of contributors discuss a range of key issues and concepts associated with music learning and teaching. The volume then focuses on these processes as they take place during childhood, from infancy through adolescence and primarily in the school-age years. Exploring how children across the globe learn and make music and the skills and attributes gained when they do so, these chapters examine the means through which music educators can best meet young people's musical needs. The second volume of the set brings the exploration beyond the classroom and into later life. Whether they are used individually or in tandem, the two volumes of The Oxford Handbook of Music Education update and redefine the discipline, and show how individuals across the world learn, enjoy and share the power and uniqueness of music.

Download The Oxford Handbook of Social Media and Music Learning PDF Full

The Oxford Handbook of Social Media and Music Learning

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN : 0190660783
Pages : 656 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (66 Download)

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Download Free The Oxford Handbook of Social Media and Music Learning PDF by Janice L. Waldron Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2020-09-23 with total page 656 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The rapid pace of technological change over the last decade, particularly the rise of social media, has deeply affected the ways in which we interact as individuals, in groups, and among institutions to the point that it is difficult to grasp what it would be like to lose access to this everyday aspect of modern life. The Oxford Handbook of Social Media and Music Learning investigates the ways in which social media is now firmly engrained in all aspects of music education, providing fascinating insights into the ways in which social media, musical participation, and musical learning are increasingly entwined. In five sections of newly commissioned chapters, a refreshing mix of junior and senior scholars tackle questions concerning the potential for formal and informal musical learning in a networked society. Beginning with an overview of community identity and the new musical self through social media, scholars explore intersections between digital, musical, and social constructs including the vernacular of born-digital performance, musical identity and projection, and the expanding definition of musical empowerment. The fifth section brings this handbook to full practical fruition, featuring firsthand accounts of digital musicians, students, and teachers in the field. The Oxford Handbook of Social Media and Music Learning opens up an international discussion of what it means to be a musical community member in an age of technologically mediated relationships that break down the limits of geographical, cultural, political, and economic place.

Download Navigating Music and Sound Education PDF Full

Navigating Music and Sound Education

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Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
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ISBN : 1443818976
Pages : 235 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (818 Download)

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Download Free Navigating Music and Sound Education PDF by Julie Ballantyne Full Book and published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing. This book was released on 2010-01-08 with total page 235 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Navigating Music and Sound Education has been specifically written for pre-service teachers who are studying music education curriculum or pedagogy subjects. It features the voices of leading international academics in the field to illuminate issues of importance in preparing pre-service teacher education students. The engaging examples provided in each chapter are drawn from real-life educational settings, and enable readers to critically explore the perspectives presented by the authors and consider the application of such perspectives in their future practice.

Download How Popular Musicians Learn PDF Full

How Popular Musicians Learn

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Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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ISBN : 1409493563
Pages : 250 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (493 Download)

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Download Free How Popular Musicians Learn PDF by Professor Lucy Green Full Book and published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. This book was released on 2013-01-28 with total page 250 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Popular musicians acquire some or all of their skills and knowledge informally, outside school or university, and with little help from trained instrumental teachers. How do they go about this process? Despite the fact that popular music has recently entered formal music education, we have as yet a limited understanding of the learning practices adopted by its musicians. Nor do we know why so many popular musicians in the past turned away from music education, or how young popular musicians today are responding to it. Drawing on a series of interviews with musicians aged between fifteen and fifty, Lucy Green explores the nature of pop musicians' informal learning practices, attitudes and values, the extent to which these altered over the last forty years, and the experiences of the musicians in formal music education. Through a comparison of the characteristics of informal pop music learning with those of more formal music education, the book offers insights into how we might re-invigorate the musical involvement of the population.

Download The Oxford Handbook of Technology and Music Education PDF Full

The Oxford Handbook of Technology and Music Education

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN : 0199372136
Pages : 700 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (372 Download)

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Download Free The Oxford Handbook of Technology and Music Education PDF by Alex Ruthmann Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2017 with total page 700 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: "Few aspects of daily existence are untouched by technology. Learning and teaching music are no exceptions and arguably have been impacted as much or more than other areas of life. Digital technologies have come to affect music learning and teaching in profound ways, influencing how we create, listen, share, consume, and interact with music--and conceptualize musical practices and the musical experience. For a discipline as entrenched in tradition as music education, this has brought forth myriad views on what does and should constitute music learning and teaching. To tease out and elucidate some of the salient problems, interests, and issues, The Oxford Handbook of Technology and Music Education critically situates technology in relation to music education from a variety of perspectives--historical, philosophical, socio-cultural, pedagogical, musical, economic, policy--organized around four broad themes: Emergence and Evolution; Locations and Contexts: Social and Cultural Issues; Experiencing, Expressing, Learning and Teaching; and Competence, Credentialing, and Professional Development. Chapters from a highly diverse group of junior and senior scholars provide analyses of technology and music education through intersections of gender, theoretical perspective, geographical distribution, and relationship to the field. The Oxford Handbook of Technology and Music Education's dedication to diversity and forward-facing discussion promotes contrasting perspectives and conversational voices rather than reinforce traditional narratives and prevailing discourses."-- $c Book jacket.

Download The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning PDF Full

The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN : 0199771529
Pages : 1248 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (771 Download)

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Download Free The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning PDF by Richard Colwell Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2002-04-18 with total page 1248 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Featuring chapters by the world's foremost scholars in music education and cognition, this handbook is a convenient collection of current research on music teaching and learning. This comprehensive work includes sections on arts advocacy, music and medicine, teacher education, and studio instruction, among other subjects, making it an essential reference for music education programs. The original Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, published in 1992 with the sponsorship of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC), was hailed as "a welcome addition to the literature on music education because it serves to provide definition and unity to a broad and complex field" (Choice). This new companion volume, again with the sponsorship of MENC, explores the significant changes in music and arts education that have taken place in the last decade. Notably, several chapters now incorporate insights from other fields to shed light on multi-cultural music education, gender issues in music education, and non-musical outcomes of music education. Other chapters offer practical information on maintaining musicians' health, training music teachers, and evaluating music education programs. Philosophical issues, such as musical cognition, the philosophy of research theory, curriculum, and educating musically, are also explored in relationship to policy issues. In addition to surveying the literature, each chapter considers the significance of the research and provides suggestions for future study. Covering a broad range of topics and addressing the issues of music education at all age levels, from early childhood to motivation and self-regulation, this handbook is an invaluable resource for music teachers, researchers, and scholars.

Download International Handbook of Research in Arts Education PDF Full

International Handbook of Research in Arts Education

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Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date :
ISBN : 9781402048579
Pages : 1629 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (572 Download)

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Download Free International Handbook of Research in Arts Education PDF by Liora Bresler Full Book and published by Springer Science & Business Media. This book was released on 2007-03-05 with total page 1629 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Providing a distillation of knowledge in the various disciplines of arts education (dance, drama, music, literature and poetry and visual arts), this essential handbook synthesizes existing research literature, reflects on the past, and contributes to shaping the future of the respective and integrated disciplines of arts education. While research can at times seem distant from practice, the Handbook aims to maintain connection with the live practice of art and of education, capturing the vibrancy and best thinking in the field of theory and practice. The Handbook is organized into 13 sections, each focusing on a major area or issue in arts education research.

Download Music Video Games PDF Full

Music Video Games

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Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Release Date :
ISBN : 1501308491
Pages : 352 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (38 Download)

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Download Free Music Video Games PDF by Michael Austin Full Book and published by Bloomsbury Publishing USA. This book was released on 2016-07-28 with total page 352 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music Video Games takes a look (and listen) at the popular genre of music games – video games in which music is at the forefront of player interaction and gameplay. With chapters on a wide variety of music games, ranging from well-known console games such as Guitar Hero and Rock Band to new, emerging games for smartphones and tablets, scholars from diverse disciplines and backgrounds discuss the history, development, and cultural impact of music games. Each chapter investigates important themes surrounding the ways in which we play music and play with music in video games. Starting with the precursors to music games - including Simon, the hand-held electronic music game from the 1980s, Michael Austin's collection goes on to discuss issues in musicianship and performance, authenticity and “selling out,” and composing, creating, and learning music with video games. Including a glossary and detailed indices, Austin and his team shine a much needed light on the often overlooked subject of music video games.

Download Music Learning and Teaching in Culturally and Socially Diverse Contexts PDF Full

Music Learning and Teaching in Culturally and Socially Diverse Contexts

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Publisher : Springer
Release Date :
ISBN : 3319954083
Pages : 215 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (954 Download)

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Download Free Music Learning and Teaching in Culturally and Socially Diverse Contexts PDF by Georgina Barton Full Book and published by Springer. This book was released on 2018-08-13 with total page 215 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book examines the inter-relationship between music learning and teaching, and culture and society: a relationship that is crucial to comprehend in today’s classrooms. The author presents case studies from diverse music learning and teaching contexts – including South India and Australia and online learning environments – to compare the modes of transmission teachers use to share their music knowledge and skills. It is imperative to understand the ways in which culture and society can in fact influence music teachers’ beliefs and experiences: and in understanding, there is potential to improve intercultural approaches to music education more generally. In increasingly diverse schools, the author highlights the need for culturally appropriate approaches to music planning, assessment and curricula. Thus, music teachers and learners will be able to understand the diversity of music education, and be encouraged to embrace a variety of methods and approaches in their own teaching. This inspiring book will be of interest and value to all those involved in teaching and learning music in various contexts.

Download Music and Music Education in People's Lives PDF Full

Music and Music Education in People's Lives

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0190674431
Pages : 384 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (674 Download)

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Download Free Music and Music Education in People's Lives PDF by Gary E. McPherson Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2018 with total page 384 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music and Music Education in People's Lives is one of five paperback books derived from the foundational two-volume Oxford Handbook of Music Education. Designed for music teachers, students, and scholars of music education, as well as educational administrators and policy makers, this first book in the set provides a framework for understanding the content and context of music education, and for future action within the profession. A broad examination of the philosophical, psychological, cultural, international, and contextual issues that underpin a wide variety of teaching environments or individual attributes is paired with 25 relevant and insightful commentaries from established scholars and music educators. Taken as a whole, Music and Music Education in People's Lives gives clear direction to how the discipline of music education can achieve even greater political, theoretical and professional strength. Contributors Harold F. Abeles, Nick Beach, Wayne D. Bowman, Liora Bresler, Patricia Shehan Campbell, Richard Colwell, Robert A. Cutietta, David J. Elliott, Sergio Figueiredo, Lucy Green, Wilfried Gruhn, David Hargreaves, Sarah Hennessy, Liane Hentschke, Donald A. Hodges, Christopher M. Johnson, Estelle R. Jorgensen, Andreas C. Lehmann, Richard Letts, Håkan Lundström, Raymond MacDonald, Clifford K. Madsen, Andrew J. Martin, Marie McCarthy, Katrina McFerran, Gary E. McPherson, Bradley Merrick, Dorothy Miell, Graça Mota, Bruno Nettl, Bengt Olsson, Susan A. O'Neill, Johnmarshall Reeve, Bennett Reimer, James Renwick, Huib Schippers, Wendy L. Sims, David J. Teachout, Rena Upitis, Peter R. Webster, Graham F. Welch, Paul Woodford

Download Developing an All-School Model for Elementary Integrative Music Learning PDF Full

Developing an All-School Model for Elementary Integrative Music Learning

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Publisher : Universal-Publishers
Release Date :
ISBN : 161233427X
Pages : 358 pages
Rating : 4.2/5 (334 Download)

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Download Free Developing an All-School Model for Elementary Integrative Music Learning PDF by Carol E. Reed-Jones Full Book and published by Universal-Publishers. This book was released on 2014-03 with total page 358 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for increasing informal music-making in elementary school culture, and create a model of such music-making. Precedence for this model can be found in the literature of ethnomusicology, educational psychology and learning theory, multicultural music education, and cultural anthropology. Literature from four distinct traditions and contexts of music-making in integrative sociocultural contexts-sub-Saharan African ngoma, and Community Music as manifested in New Orleans second lines, old-time music and dance, and summer camp music-making-was parsed with a philosophical lens to determine and assess possible areas of intersection between these four participatory cultures and North American public school culture. Each of these five areas was examined through a comprehensive review of literature to define their salient characteristics. These characteristics were sorted to determine commonalities between areas, and the zones of intersection became the basis for a speculative model of integrative music learning, featuring the inclusion of musical opportunities and interludes throughout the school day, thus taking school music beyond the confines of the music room. Instruction in music classes would still continue, enhanced in this model by supplemental learning opportunities inspired by the informal learning of traditional world musics, the participatory practice of New Orleans second line parades, old-time music and dance, and summer camp music culture. This model of integrative learning is also informed by current educational best practices such as child-centered learning, peer tutoring, experiential learning, and multicultural perspectives. It acknowledges the diversity of traditions consulted, while aiming for the unity in their seemingly disparate disciplines. Five universal characteristics were uncovered in the search for areas of intersection between North American elementary school culture, child culture, ngoma music-making, and Community Music-style music-making in New Orleans, old-time music and dance, and summer camp contexts: (a) Song; (b) play; (c) informal learning, as evidenced by oral tradition, peer tutoring, self-learning; (d) kinesthetic learning; and (e) contextualized learning, as evidenced in the sociocultural uses of music and situated learning. This model strives for the enactment of school music as a vital and integral part of daily school culture.

Download Music Learning as Youth Development PDF Full

Music Learning as Youth Development

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Publisher : Routledge
Release Date :
ISBN : 0429792506
Pages : 206 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (792 Download)

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Download Free Music Learning as Youth Development PDF by Brian Kaufman Full Book and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2019-05-30 with total page 206 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music Learning as Youth Development explores how music education programs can contribute to young people’s social, emotional, cognitive, and artistic capacities in the context of life-long musical development. International scholars argue that MLYD programs should focus in particular on the curiosity, energy and views of young people affecting the teachers, musicians, pedagogy, programs, and music with which young people interact. From fields of progressive music education, authors share their perspectives on approaches that can lead to new ways of enabling youth learners as they transition to adulthood. A vast range of possible outcomes arising from in-school, afterschool, and community-based music programs are examined in order to highlight the aspects of youth development that music learning is particularly well-suited to support. Following an introductory essay that provides new perspectives on pursuing lifelong musical development, the volume is features two primary sections. The first focuses on case studies exploring several programs through the lens of the transitional stages of music learning as youth development, helping the reader understand key concepts and explore challenges for creating music learning as youth development programs. The second section addresses the broad implications and policy issues of programs described, including discussing why music learning should be conceived of as critical to formative stages of youth development that can lead to a productive and fulfilling life. The conclusion synthesizes the range of perspectives provided by eight contributors and offers implications for life-long human development through music in the 21st century.

Download The Oxford Handbook of Music Education PDF Full

The Oxford Handbook of Music Education

Author :
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0199928029
Pages : 656 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (928 Download)

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Download Free The Oxford Handbook of Music Education PDF by Gary McPherson Full Book and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2012-07-15 with total page 656 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Music education takes place in many contexts, both formal and informal. Be it in a school or music studio, while making music with friends or family, or even while travelling in a car, walking through a shopping mall or watching television, our myriad sonic experiences accumulate from the earliest months of life to foster our facility for making sense of the sound worlds in which we live. The Oxford Handbook of Music Education offers a comprehensive overview of the many facets of musical experience, behavior and development in relation to this diverse variety of contexts. While the first volume primarily focuses on children during school-age years, this second collects an international list of contributors to explore how music learning takes place outside of the traditional classroom environment. Discussing a range of issues such as music education for the special needs population, music learning in adulthood, and music learning through media and technology these chapters help to broaden conceptions of music and musical involvement. Whether they are used individually or in tandem, the two volumes of The Oxford Handbook of Music Education update and redefine the discipline, and show how individuals across the world learn, enjoy and share the power and uniqueness of music.