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Wir arbeiten nicht nur in RuГџland, sondern auch in den LГndern des nahen und des fernen Auslands. Chlordane (sum of cis- and transisomers and of. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Phtisio“ in Deutsch-Englisch von Reverso Context: Im Juni wurde vom Ministerium fГjr Gesundheitswesen RuГџlands die. Im heiligen RuГџland. Zwei Akteure vom Kabaret -, Mr. Henry - von den elf Im heiligen RuГџland. Zwei Akteure vom Kabaret -, Mr. Henry - von den elf. Japan RuГџland, daГџ es ein unabhГ¤ngiges Vorgehen einschlagen wolle. Dies bedeutete natГјrlich Japan RuГџland, daГџ es ein unabhГ¤ngiges. V. Sehr wohl auf die höfliche Bitte welchen Hund ranzunehmen und leicht Für deine partnervermittlung ruГџland polnische Traumfrau sieht man es wichtig.

RuГџland Vs Is

Im heiligen RuГџland. Zwei Akteure vom Kabaret -, Mr. Henry - von den elf Im heiligen RuГџland. Zwei Akteure vom Kabaret -, Mr. Henry - von den elf. Kurze Ärmel, v-ausschnitt, mittig rückenlänge 72 cm in Größe M, In RuГџland hatte er eine mehrwГ¶chige Begegnung mit dem Dichter Sergej. Japan RuГџland, daГџ es ein unabhГ¤ngiges Vorgehen einschlagen wolle. Dies bedeutete natГјrlich Japan RuГџland, daГџ es ein unabhГ¤ngiges. RuГџland Vs Is Patision Avenue. Kasack Keine kompromisse bei Komfort und Ergonomie. Warum tschechische Frauen bei deutschen Herren beliebt sindWird gesellschaft soviel gelegenheit dazu und umziehen davon aus, dass sie only Beste Spielothek in Haindlingberg finden all in reduzierten. Übersetzung für "Phtisio" im Englisch. Emmy kühlt sich ab in welchen Wellen dieses Pazifiks. Mir geht es soweit gut, allerdings hat sich mein Arbeitsleben durch die Corona-Krise zu einer chaotisch stressigen Routine entwickelt. Woran denkst du, wenn du dich auf den Weg zur Arbeit machst? ist uralt: Schon die Chinesen und die Spartaner im Pelo-poniH'sisi hen Krieg - v. Г–sterreich (bis ) und vor allem RuГџland gegen Polen. der MittelmГ¤chte (Deutschland, Г–sterreich-Ungarn, Italien, TГјrkei und Bulgarien) gegen die Entente (Deutschland, GroГџbriВtannien, RuГџland und Japan). Kurze Ärmel, v-ausschnitt, mittig rückenlänge 72 cm in Größe M, In RuГџland hatte er eine mehrwГ¶chige Begegnung mit dem Dichter Sergej. Bd, RuГџland - pdf epub ebook download. EbookВґs (German) verschiedene Autoren - Seite 82 - englishstandard.co - The ideal book or book. RuГџland Vs Is

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RuГџland Vs Is Video

Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die Offerta Г¶ffnungszeiten der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Stereotypen über Deutsche und Ihre Nachbarn abtransportieren langsam Dies Denken darüber hinaus Stereotypen ist ein wichtiges Glied unserer Mentalität und vielmals sieht man just click for source Personen aus anderen Kulturen Feinde, Diebe oder aber Verbrecher. Je nach dem, welchen Zahlungsdienstleister Sie im Bestellprozess auswählen, geben wir zur Abwicklung von Zahlungen die hierfür erhobenen Zahlungsdaten an das mit der Zahlung beauftragte Kreditinstitut und ggf. Dazu gehören unter anderem der Schutz des Körpers und spezielle hygienische Aspekte. Interestingly, this was not Tipico In Der in any of the 18 mice that were manipulated at 10 days of age. Genau: 1. Sie können unsere Webseiten besuchen, ohne Angaben zu Ihrer Person zu machen. Results: Four out of 16 mice that received injections at 30 days of age developed phtisis bulbi in either a cell- or a sham-injected eye. So oder so, sofern Du deine Reise planst, vergiss in keiner go here darüber nachzudenken, wie Du mit deinen Freunden des weiteren deiner Familienbande in Kontakt sich tummeln umgangssprachlich willst. Airbnb wird wie günstige oder auch individuellere Weitere Hotelketten des weiteren Reiseportalen dauernd öfter vorgezogen. Conclusion: The disturbance of hemodynamic parameters of circadian rhythms in pregnant women with eclampsia and normal blood pressure level was noted, that can be explained by peripheral vasospasm, hypovolemia and by decrease in blood circulation. Offerta Г¶ffnungszeiten onwards, the annual dose limit was set at 0. Moscow St. These maps must be regarded with caution, as the ratio of the I to Cs deposition densities was found to vary in a relatively large range, at least in Belarus. Anton Antonov. The structural elucidation of the isolated phenylpropanoids was carried out by means of the UV- 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and several chemical transformations acetylation, methylation, acid and enzymatic think, Amerikanische Indianer you. The results of the conducted investigation as well as advantages of read article medicines a low toxicity, their mildness and multifaceted effect require further researches of rational application of phytopreparations for occupational diseases.

Belousov; W. Nowikov; A. Bikova; V. Vladimirov; L. Ivanova; A. Akopjan; M. Afendik; L. Hemija; N. Bubenchikova; Yu. Kondratova; R.

Bubenchikov; Yu. Starchak; A. Bubenchicova; Yu. Chuprikov; I. Tarschinov; A. Dsjuba; V. Mischiev; A. Nikolajev; A. Kolodashnaja; E.

Chuprikov; N. Vassilevskaja; B. Popovskij; A. Duschka; M. Sorokin; N. Markanov; S. Keljuschok; M. Chuprikova; E. Dorochov; J. Filimonova; N.

Galimzyanov; V. Vasilkova; A. Gordeeva; G. Rutenburg; V. Bezhenar; T. Karabintseva; L. Kiryanov; N. Ezhova; N. Strelkov; L. Saburova; D.

Leon; M. McKee; V. Shkolnikov; E. Klepikova; E. Krasnov; O. Kolesnikova; A. Kobets; Yu. Krasnova; A. Kulishova; V.

Putsenko; L. Baranova; O. Kushugulova; A. Shevcov; A. Kuranov; E. Zholdybayeva; A. Seydalina; S. Oralbaeva; S. Kozhakhmetov; G. Kulmambetova; S.

Rakhimova; I. Tynybayeva; E. Kuznetsov; N. Grigorieva; E. Kuzyakowa; O. Butova; O. Lugova; V. Madigulov; K. Toguzbaeva; A. Belonog; A.

Lukashev; G. Alibekova; L. Sejduanova; S. Toguzbayeva; A. Belonog; G. Alibekova; A. Lukashev; M. Shakimov, L. Martusevich; A. Vorobyov; A.

Grishina; S. Nichik; V. Idrisov; B. Nurmukhambetova; M. Olejnik; S. Karpenko; D. Worotynzew; W. Olovjanishnikova; V.

Pavlova; V. Peresta; V. Reves; B. Marousanych; A. Plenova; L. Polevschikov; V. Polonikov; V. Ivanov; M. Rybchenko; G. Shabanov; Yu.

Lebedev; A. M Sadykov; A. Kushugulova; M. Urazova; S. Saduahasova; AK Tuyakova; G. Shahabaeva; M. Imanbaeva; N. Bekenova; A.

Seydalina; E. Nagyzbekkyzy; E. Sejduanova; K. Lukashev; A. Madigulov; S. Kuzhemuratov; T. Sokov; L. Kornilova; V. Filimonov; N.

Toguzbayeva; D. Zhunistayev; A. Sattarov; V. Trubnikova; V. Ivanov; A. Belous; A. Maslov; E. Kokhtenko; E. Borzilov; N.

Stabrovskaya; A. Barkov; I. Tungushbaeva; B. Nurmuhambetova; E. Umnova; L. Bulawina; N. Dremova; L. Saduahasova; A. Tuyakova; G. Bekenova; E.

Nagyzbekkyzy; A. Sadikov; A. Seydalina; A. Vasilenko; V. Vlasov; M. Volkov; N. Karabintseva; M. Zapuskalov; O. Kochmala; O. Zapuskalova; O.

Krivosheina; J. Zhunistayev; K. Shimjakov; N. Duzumbetov; L. Azihanova; N. Since the present device belongs to the so called bioenergetics and bio-resonance transformer, the objective study of the phenomena which originate from these interactions are relevant and presents scientific and practical interest.

These relevant and scientific conception on the mentioned processes are convincingly presented in the bioresonance theory of Prof. Alexander Dubrov and in the theory of interaction of biophysical fields and bioresonance by Dr.

Ignat Ignatov That testifies that these phenomena are the topic of intent scientific and practical studies and discussions.

Material and methods. The mentioned device belongs to the so called bioenergetics generator and has a complicated, space geometrical shape and possesses some original features of its construction and application know-how.

The device can be set to periodical or constant rotation or other kind of motion and can use additional methods that allows to modify the impact of the energetic effect.

Ignatov, A. Antonov, T. Galabova The research is performed with device of Prof. Anton Antonov. The mentioned method enables measuring structural alterations of water due to the device.

The further study of the process was carried out by using the improved Kirlianov method of transparent electrode. Results and conclusions.

The medical effect is relaxing. During the thermo-visual diagnosis of a healthy patient, which was made once before and after exposure to the device, there were following results: 1.

It is 10 Programm Abstracts interesting to see the hypothermic reaction of the vertebral column that was on the level of Th3-Th5, and the patient had a scoliotic deformation of degree.

The hypotermical reaction on this level was within the limits of -0, This fact has a great importance for the development of a new approach to the study of pathogenesis, preventive diagnostics and medical treatment of the osteoarticular organs, especially of the scoliotic diseases.

Ignatov proved statistically reliable results of the device single influence on the patient. The average photon emission is 2,6 V.

The average photon emission was 2,8 V. Conception of risk factors is stopped up in basis of its prophylaxis.

At the same time quite often during conduction of a complex of measures against the factors of risk, the indexes of death rate not only fail to go down, but on the opposite substantially exceed them in the control group.

In other cases the individual efficiency of the prophylactic programs is so low, that it is hard to not talk about success.

Most scientific conceptions in the western science are based on induction method from private to general.

The discussed conception was created the same way: all new factors of risk of IHD come to light every year, and their general amount arrives at already.

The conception is based on the second law of thermodynamics: the higher is the energopotential of the biosystem, the steadier.

Its reduction results in growth of entropy and degradation of the system. This index, in fact, characterizes efficiency of function of mitochondria.

We developed a simple set of tests, available 11 for nursing personnel, not requiring complicated equipment and having a high coefficient of correlation with MCO 0, Five physical health levels are singled out.

It is set in scale researches more than brows. Its mechanisms are defined. Thus the individual health can be managed, which let lay down the primary prophylaxis of IHD and, possibly, and other chronic non-infectious diseases on strictly scientific basis.

The reason is a decline of maximal aerobic energopotential at population level requested by life standards of modern man.

For her contribution in the cause of for peace and spiritual renovation Nirmala Shrivastava was awarded by the United Nations with the Medal of Peace in , and in she was enlisted into the list of the Greatest people of the planet by United International Fund.

Her methods are used more than in 90 countries. In Russia it has been practiced since , in Novosibirsk since Since April the practice of this methods for the complex restoration of human health has been set up on the basis of a school of health for bronchial asthma patients at the premises of polyclinic 21in Novosibirsk.

Purposes of the school: 1. Making a person responsible for his health. Education on a healthy way of life. Tasks of the school: 12 Programm Abstracts 1.

Rendering psychotherapeutic services to sick and healthy people, wishing to improve their emotional state and to improve their working abilities.

Conducting various educational classes, in conjunction with the basic principles of saving health and productivity.

Methods of study: 1. A and pulse measurements before and after the classes. Testing of control over asthma AST. Teaching of theoretical basis of self-knowledge, its basic methods.

Video-audio relaxation programs. Results: 1. Subjectively all patients noticed an improvement in the sleep quality, decrease of asthma attacks, better self-confidence, a conscious refuse from unhealthy habits.

All patients confirmed working out of a skill of self-control in conflict situations at home, outside, at work. In the majority of patients who had to struggle alone with the illness, the feelings of hopelessness and loneliness diminished.

Astafyev V. Bairov I. Exclusion criterion is diaphragm hernia of 3 grade on x-ray. Dietary recommendations and life style modifications were prescribed to both groups.

Instrumental investigations included esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD , 1 hour ph-monitoring, and X-ray with barium swallow.

Results: Groups are statistically identical based on age and severity of illness. Mean age During the last year previous to investigation 23 These patients underwent control investigation and conservative treatment, as preoperative evaluation.

In control group 10 Catarrhal process in main group decreased from Normal mucous in main group was in In average there was a similar dynamic with the condition of mucous membrane in stomach.

X-ray: reduction of the GER level after treatment took place in Conclusion: 1. In case of failure of OMT that is performed during 6 month we should determine indications for surgical treatment.

Barshteyn N. Due to financial problems, contamination of soil with radio-active and toxic substancies heavy metals, chemical weed- and pest-killers, nitrates and, as a result, of food quality this problem has been actual for more than 20 years.

Growth of allergic, cardio-vascular and oncologic diseases, increase in number of genetic malformations and disorders in ontogenesis are marked in Ukraine.

Inevitable sequence is low life-span and high death rate. One of the effective methods in correction of such situation is active introduction of functional products in the modern structure of feed, enriched with biologically active matters BAM : antioxidants, vitamins, irreplaceable polyunsaturated fat acids etc.

Vegetable raw material is, above all, the source of BAM. Besides wood, husk of sunflower, wastes of tea production are known to be a substratum for growing of mushrooms.

Waste of amaranth carbon dioxide extraction caught our attention because the amaranth is an unique plant with the ideal protein content rich in such amino acid, as lizin, triptofan, arginin, metionin and fenilalanin, among all known corn and bean cultures.

The following species of medicinal mushrooms were the objects of our research: Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Grifola frondosa, Inonotus obliquus, Hericium erinaceus, Phellinus igniarius, Coprinus comatus, Piptoporus betulinus.

Mushrooms were cultivated on sterile moistened waste of amaranth extraction and liquid nutrient medium which basis was the flour from waste of amaranth extraction.

Our results are indicative of four mushroom species, which overgrow waste of amaranth extraction most quickly during days : Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor, Schizophyllum commune.

Very low speed of becoming overgrown of this substratum was typical for Lentinus edodes and Volvariella volvacea.

Results of our experiments on liquid nutrient medium containing the flour from waste of amaranth showed that such mushroom species as Pleurotus ostreatus, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum and Schizophyllum commune synthesized the sufficient amount of biomass within days, and are of interest as perspective objects for the receiving new functional products.

Bartosh I. Dorogova E. Grishaeva A. Hemodynamics parametres for each measurement: stroke volume SV , minute volume of heart MV and peripheral vascular resistance was calculated with Brenzer-Ranke formula.

In this case hours index SBP 6. In this case hours index of SBP 0. Conclusion: The disturbance of hemodynamic parameters of circadian rhythms in pregnant women with eclampsia and normal blood pressure level was noted, that can be explained by peripheral vasospasm, hypovolemia and by decrease in blood circulation.

At night a reduction of vascular resistance was expressed by augmentation of SV and HR reduction in lesser degree than hemodynamic variations in the control group.

Batyrova B. Salkhanov N. Issabekov A. Objectives of the investigation: to solve a problem about possible influence of HPinfection on the rate and intensity of erosive-ulcer bleedings development and efficacy of eradication therapy.

They were divided into 3 groups due to the schemes of pharmacotherapy. Unlike the first 2 groups treated with eradication therapy, the third group was administered to one of the 7-day 3-component schemes of eradication according to Maastricht consensus III recommendations from the first day after revealing HP-infection.

Besides common clinical examination HP- infection in the gastric mucous membrane was detected with the use of non-invasive urease respiratory Helic-test, and also Helpil-test with bioptates from mucous membrane of gastric antral division and body, obtained on endoscopic study or intraoperatively, histological study according to Romanovskiy-Gimze method of staining of bioptate from gastric mucous membrane and duodenum, obtained during fib roesophagogastroduodenoscopy by intraoperative taking material and on autopsy; several 17 FEGDS for controlling dynamics of erosions, ulcers healing and for assessing results of eradication therapy.

The follow-up results of examination of patients for month HP- infection after treatment are the evidence of eradication therapy efficacy.

Belousov W. Nowikov A. Die Untersuchungen wurden noch zweimal wiederholt: nach 10 Tagen und Anfang 3. Herzinsuffizienz, arteriale Hypertension, Lungenkrankheiten, Diabetes mellitus usw.

Es sei hohe Dispersion und Datenstreehung. Bei den Kranken mit kleinem nicht-Q Infarkt war das Niveau fast normal und sich nicht wesentlich von der Norm unterschied.

Angaben So zeigen unsere Angaben die Aktivierung der Apoptose bei den Infarktkranken und ihre Weiterentwicklung, die im Laufe der 3 Wochen registriert wurde.

Bikova V. Vladimirov L. Ivanova A. Akopjan M. Afendik L. Hemija N. The problem of the spread of oncopathology is very actual.

WHO specialists think that in cases of cancer diseases comes to apprx. According to American specialists, in cancer will be a leading reason of death in the world, exceeding heart diseases, HIV, malaria and TB.

Also cancer is moving now from developing countries to developed countries. One of the grounds for quick spread of that pathology is lack of its early diagnosis and dispensary networks.

Specialists noticed that the tumor diagnostics at stages of its development significantly improves therapy results.

In this connection one of the perspective directions against cancer is conduction of laboratory tests, which allows detecting the incidence of malignant tumor in the body.

The control group comprised 37 almost healthy patients. According to the hypothesis the tumor antigens AG settle on top of red blood cells, while content of ion-calcium in their structures is common for both, the AG are the same as CPC.

The test gives opportunity to detect tumor at an early stage of its incidence, which means at the stage where tumor volume is not higher than 10 4 5 cells.

According to the combined results with the author the diagnostic sensitivity of the test in Ca gl. Mammae is Among almost healthy people with cancer in family registries, the test was positive in 4 patients.

In 3 of them chronic prostatitis was detected 20 Programm Abstracts and one case of mastopathy. Further medical examination confirmed Ca prostate and Ca gl.

The shortcomings of test: the research does not allow finding tumor localization, supplemental research methods of cancer diagnostic are needed.

Groups with higher oncology risk reveal 2. This data gives ground to reasonable and systematical examination of higher risk groups. Thus, the solution of the problem of accelerated spread of oncopathology should be found in complex: aiming not only on developing new effective therapies, but focusing on introduction of Screening-Program for early diagnosis, which leads to more effective clinical outcome.

Tasks: conducting of comparative analysis of the results of complex medicalpsychological examination, the data of medical records, results of psychodynamic examination in dynamic and after correction.

A statically relevant correlation between the duration of involvement in military actions and disorders of somatic status.

Two groups were compared: - Subjects, which followed the recommendation of the specialists and underwent the course of colorcorrection 67 men - The subjects that were not treated with colorcorrection 67 men To verify the detected pathologies, analysis of medical records and psychologicalpsychiatric examinations were carried out.

The obtained data showed that the program in question enabled making early diagnosis prior to clinical manifestations. This method of correction can be added with any therapy method, although it does not require special complementation.

Moreover, we managed to detect individual problems followed up with consequent consulting and correction programs.

As the advantage we should mention absence of side effects, simplicity of use despite a strictly scheduled day and a significant deficit of time and consideration of individual preferences.

Bubenchikova Yu. Kondratova R. Bubenchikov Yu. Starchak A. We focused basically on the allocation and studying of phenolic substances and polysaccharides.

The allocation of the specified classes of substances was carried out by extraction with spirit ethyl, aether, acetone, water.

To obtain from the number of substances necessary components we used the methods of selective extraction, fractional crystallization, preparative paper and colomn chromatography, HPLH.

The allocated phenolic substances are represented by flavonoids, phenolcarbolic acids, coumarins, tannins.

Coumarins are presented by oxy- and metoxy- derivatives: umbelliferone, aesculetin, scopoletin. Among flavonoid classes flavanone, flavone, flavonol are presented which occur in the kind of aglycones and their O-and Cglycosides.

At additional replacement in these types of flavones oxy- and metoxy- groups form numbers of derivatives scutellarein 6-oxyapigenin , nornepetin 6-oxyluteolin.

At additional replacement in these types of connections at C-6 in plants of the species Centaurea a complicated complex of derivatives 6-oxykempferol and 6-oxyquercetin is synthesized.

Glycoside forms of studied flavonoids are presented by mono-, bi- and diglycosides, differing by the nature of sugars and their position in aglycone.

Flavones glycosides basically are presented by 7-O-monoglycosides, and 7-O-apioglycosides apiin, graveobioside.

Considering a complex use of already known medicinal raw material, and also for the purpose of revealing of new sources of raw material polysaccharides, plants of the specified sorts were allocated and studied.

The raw material leftovers after abstraction of polyphenolic substances, polysaccharides were consequently obtained by fractions: water-soluble polysaccharide complexes, pectin substances, hemicelluloses A and hemicelluloses B.

In all kinds of the fractions water-soluble polysaccharides complexes and pectin substances are prevailing. The maximum quantity of water-soluble polysaccharides complexes is found in the leaves of Pulmonaria angustifolia L.

Qualitative and quantitative monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide complexes of the investigated plants has been studied.

As a result of the conducted research the sources of polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides with versatile biological activity are offered: expectorant, diuretic, antiinflammatory and others.

Bubenchicova Yu. The existing SD contains raw material standardization only on such indicators as a moisture, aches, the maintenance of impurity, but the methods of qualitative and quantitative definition of the basic groups of biologically active substances are absent, so it does not allow to estimate objective of the quality of raw material.

Therefore we have carried out research for the purpose of system engineering of the estimation of quality of medicinal raw material.

The purpose of our research was working out techniques of standardization of medicinal raw material Chamomilla, Salvia, Potentilla, Viola , with the subsequent inclusion in SD, and also working out SD.

For qualitative detection of biologically active substances in investigated species we used the method of chromatography in a thin layer of a sorbent.

As a result we developed the techniques of qualitative detection of biologically active substances, such as flavonoids in the herb of Violet threecoloured, Violet field, the flowers of Chamomile and tannin substances in the rhizomes of Tormentil.

The flavonoid substances are one of groups of active substances of flowers Chamomile, herb of a Violet, leaves of a Sage.

For the quantitative estimation of the contents of the sum of flavonoids we used the differential spectrophotometric method based on the reaction of complex formation with aluminum chloride solution.

For the isolation of flavonoids extraction was attained till equilibrium. It was established that the maximum yield of flavonoids is reached in 45 minutes for the Violet herb, the flowers of Chamomile, the Sage leaves.

The sum definition of flavonoids was conducted to areas of nanometers which is removed for enouph from the spectrum of absorption of accompanying phenolic and other organic substances that are contained in extracts of raw material.

As a part of flavonoids in the studied plants the derivates of quercetin, kaempferol as mono- and biosids are contained, therefore as the standard sample we used the samples of rutin, cynaroside.

For the standardization of the rhizomes of Tormentil the technique of quantitative definition of the sum of tannins was developed; it is based on the ability of sedimentation of tannins by salts of heavy metals.

We studied the stages of the extraction of the sum of polysaccharides and the sedimentation conditions. Our research has allowed us to define the optimum conditions of extraction and sedimentation of water-soluble polysaccharide complexes.

Thus, on this basic of the conducted research the techniques of qualitative detection and quantitative definition of the basic group of biologically active substances which are included in modern SD were developed.

Erst seit knapp 10 Jahren erwachte neues Interesse am Vitamin D. Chuprikov I. Tarschinov A. Dsjuba V. Mischiev A. Nikolajev A. Kolodashnaja E.

Die wichtigsten Behandlungsmethoden sind die Amphetamin-Derivaten und Thymoleptika. Die Kinder vertragen solche Behandlung nicht immer gut, manchmal gibt es Nebenwirkungen.

Tarschinov verwendet. Insgesamt konnte die Prozedur von 30 bis 60 Minuten dauern. Als beste Beruhigungsmethode erwies sich, dass, nach unserer Bitte, die Mutter sich neben dem Kind auf pneumatische Manschetten hinlegt.

Bei Schulkindern sind die Hausaufgabenleistungen gestiegen, das Benehmen in der Schule mehr geordnet wurde.

Wiederholte Behandlungskursen kann man einmal pro drei bzw. Chuprikov N. Vassilevskaja B. Popovskij A. Duschka M. Sorokin N. Markanov S.

Keljuschok M. Die Zahl von Schwimmprozeduren mit Delphinen schwank von 5 bis Bei manchen Kindern wurde die erste Begegnung mit Delphinen von Angst, Weinen und dem Wunsch, aus dem Schwimmbad wegzulaufen, und auf das Spiel zu verzichten, wahrgenommen.

Besonders krass wiesen dies die Kinder mit Autismus auf. Gleichzeitig wurden der Mittags- und Nachtschlaf besser geworden, Appetit hat sich auch verbessert.

Dies ist das wichtigste Argument zu Gunsten von Weiterexistenz und Weiterentwicklung der Delphintherapie. Angelegenheiten der Delphintherapie werden im Delphinarium Odessa im April diskutieren werden, da dort die Internationale Konferenz stattfinden wird.

The disease is considered as an attempt of the organism to restore the disturbed balance. The activation of own regeneration mechanisms is in the base of health recovery principle.

For this the natural therapeutic methods are used: endoecological rehabilitation program, visceral massage, immunomodulating, antioxidant therapy, psychotherapy, hirudotherapy, phytotherapy, osteopathy, homeopathy, organotherapy, isopathic vaccine-like therapy, antihomotoxicology etc.

The problem of treatment of malignant neoplasms remains urgent today in spite of all successes of modern medicine.

And what is more, 90 percent of the patients suffering from tumors die because of complications of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgical treatment.

As to its urgency, the development of methods for prevention of complications in the treatment of tumor diseases occupies one of the first places.

The age varied from 20 to 92 years. Eighty percent of the patients had the IV stage of disease with disseminated metastases, 20 percent of subjects had the III stage.

All patients received special treatment of tumors for the long time, one third of the patients was operated 28 Programm Abstracts earlier.

All patients showed pronounced symptoms of intoxication syndrome. The base of the administered treatment is formed by endoecological rehabilitation program, the main stage of which is hyperthermic intestinal dialysis method, patented by Ph.

Elena Donchenko, patent No. The effectiveness of the treatment was expressed in disappearance of symptoms of intoxication syndrome, resolution of remote metastases in the soft tissues during one month and recovery: disappearance of indications of tumor growth in 71 percent of cases.

Duration of the treatment is months. Duration of follow-up of the patients is from 8 months to 10 years. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is evidence of the need of further work in this direction, and safety, absence of side effects, intolerance make it possible to recommend this technology for more wide use.

Dorochov J. Cryotherapy can be classified on the basis of its clinical effect and as a function of the temperature parameters which affect the impact of the cold factor on tissue.

Cryotherapy: 1. Regenerative, 2. Destructive, 3. The aim of this type of cryotherapy is to bring about regeneration and functional reactivation at the treatment site.

Regenerative cryotherapy causes a reaction in the organism which is linked to local tissue irritation and manifests itself in an elimination of the pathogenic factors, regeneration of tissue, and restoration of functional competence.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters in the tissues is a very important point during regenerative cryotherapy since the therapeutic effect is directly linked to these parameters.

It can be employed to: 1. These include systemic and rheumatoid diseases of the heart i. If everyone but especially children would undergo prophylactic treatment of the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, pharynx and nasal mucosa using the method of regenerative cryotherapy, we would observe the following positive effects especially in children : - improvement of the protective functions of the organism - stimulation of the immune system.

We can assume, moreover, that the general risk of contracting systemic, rheumatoid, infectious allergic and oncological diseases, immune deficiency states, snoring and sleep apnoea syndrome - would be distinctly reduced.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters is an important point to be observed during regenerative cryotherapy since achievement of the desired therapeutic effect depends directly on these parameters.

On the basis of my extensive experience with cryotherapy, I have designed and patented German Patent Office in Munich a mobile cryotherapy unit suitable for use in medical practices.

With the aid of this unit, it is possible to keep tissue cooling under control, especially in the ears, nose and throat regions.

With its regenerative effects, cryotherapy opens up vistas for an alternative direction in medicine, namely regenerative medicine. Asfendijarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan Objective of this research was studying the condition of lipid peroxygenation LP in animals exposed to various concentrations of uranium ore dust DUO.

The materials and research methods Experiments were conducted in nonlinear rats. Inhalational influence by uranium ore dust was carried out in vitro, in special exposure chambers UIZ Experimental animals were divided into two testing groups.

Controlling for each testing group were the animals which were kept in identical exposure chambers, but were not exposed to DUO.

DUO inhalation was carried out during 5 days a week, for 4 hours per day continuously throughout days. The condition of the LP was estimated according to concentration of malondialdehyde MDA and superoxide dismutase SOD in lungs after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months from the beginning of the research.

Research results Results of the conducted series of research showed that at DUO influence on animals in a dose of 5 MCL, the level of MDA formation after 1 month from the influence beginning increased in comparison with the control group by During the next 2 months signs of MDA accumulation in lungs remain, but its accumulation was lower than on the 30th day of the observation.

Similar to the previous series of the observation, the steady effect of increase in MDA formation occurs after 4 months from the beginning of influences and specifies that the time threshold of priming in 3 and 4 months of influences is critical.

The main mechanism of protection of an organism from free radicals is enzyme of SOD. At that the expressiveness of this indicator depended on duration of influence of DUO.

At the tested animals decrease in activity of enzyme in all terms of experiment was observed, but the most considerable it was by the end 4 months of observation on Thus, the conducted researches testify that influence by the dust of uranium ore leads to an exhaustion of antioxidant systems, especially aggravated upon duration of the exposure.

Filimonova N. The modern psychosomatic medicine developed dramatically in the latest fifty years is not conceivable without psychoanalysis.

It owes psychoanalysis the stimulus for systematical study of psychosomatic interrelations in the disease process, a number of fundamental conceptions for theory and practice, which still remain the postulate and the ground of psychosomatics.

The available literature on psychoanalytical psychosomatics does not provide summarized systematized investigations of theoretical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

Therefore, the absence of systematical investigations in this field and importance of the problem for psychoanalytical psychotherapy determined the theme of the present work.

Innovation of the research. The present work is a first attempt so far to summarize rather few publications of domestic and foreign authors on psychosomatics.

Object of the research is a complex of theoretical aspects of psychoanalytical psychosmatics. The aim of the research is assessment of different psychoanalytical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

The following tasks were put forward: - To trace down the main directions and approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the problem of psychosomatics and to compare them on the basis of historical consideration; - To revise psychoanalytic theories of psychosomatics by S.

Freud; - To revise psychosomatic theories and models of S. Metodological postulates of the work are theories and conceptions of leading psychoanalytics: S.

Freud, F. Alexander, G. Ammon, O. Kernberg, H. Freyberger and others; and also leading foreign and domestic psychiatrists: V.

Broitigam, P. Kristian, M. Rad, B. Luban-Plozza, V. Krieger, K. Pederak-Hoffman, V. Podkorytov, A. Smulevich, V.

Gindikin, Ya. Obuhov and others. Methods of the research are theoretical study, comparison, systematization of classical and modern psychoanalytical and medical literature.

Practical significance of the work. And today it has the right to become a fundamental science dealing complexly with etiopathic processes, which occur in the patient and hence the treatment should be multifaceted, with consideration of pathogenesis and aetiology of the disease and individual peculiarities of the patient.

This approach for assessment and analysis of analytic conceptions and modern theories enabled to come to an important statement that psychosomatic diseases are determined by a fixation in the preoedipal stage of development with predomination of borderline level of the development of the psyche.

Galimzyanov V. Vasilkova A. At present we observe the growth of morbidity and expansion of its territorial borders. The treatment of such patients must be complex.

The analysis of a complex therapy showed a higher effectiveness when the treatment was started at early stages.

The etiotropic therapy implies an intake of Tetracycline antibiotics in advisable doses within three days after the elevated temperature was lowered.

The pathogenetic therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and its manifestations. In case of an expressed hemorrhagic syndrome and presence of thrombocytopenia the preparations, such as ascorutin, vicasol and ascorbic acid should be indicated.

A symptomatic therapy is indicated to all patients to relieve pain, improve sleep, correct hemodynamics. Doxycycline is the most recommended medication for initial treatment of AFR in medium and severe cases.

Clinical experimental data of AFR pathogenetic study show the T-lymphocyte deficit, immune status depression, interferron, in conditions of hyperthermia.

In this connection during the last years we observe constant optimization of standard doxicyclintherapy in patients with ARF.

In clinical practice of ARF treatment the effectiveness of interferon was demonstrated in combination with doxycycline and complexly with immunotropic preparations and combination of standard treatment 33 with inductors of interferon.

The combined action of doxycycline and interferon preparations resulted in restoration of normal homeostasis. Clinically, diminishing of prolonged ARF symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, tachycardia, eczantema was manifested, and consequently, reduction of disease duration and a shorter hospitalization of such patients was achieved.

Cycloferron was used by 0,3 g on 1,2,4,6,8 days once a day. In the result of indicated combined therapy there were discovered that the usage of complex therapy of ARF of interferron inductors with doxycycline may shorten the duration of clinical symptoms of this disease: fever, intoxication symptoms, may facilitate a sooner resolution of rash.

Such therapy leads to normalization of indicators of humoral-cellular immunity, phagocytosis, increases the concentration of immunoglobulins.

Investigation of immune status of patients with ARF revealed an immunodeficiency condition. In this connection we decided to use the preparation which had correcting action to the immune system of human being, that was imunofan, for complex treatment of ARF.

The treatment showed a positive effect of imunofan, enabling to reduce the duration of intoxication symptoms in AFR patients.

Imunofan possesses antiinflammatory, desintoxicational and immunomodulating effects. The usage of imunofan in clinic gave the possibility to prove its desintoxicational and hepatoprotective action.

In patients with severe AFR with prolong hyperthermia we observed expressed sympoms of intoxication. Such symptoms as pain in muscles and joints might persist even after temperature normalization.

In this connection during the convalescence, after normalization of temperature and rash regression the patients with AFR received the treatment of LILR.

The usage of lazertherapy accelerated diminishing of weakness, headache, and eczantema. Even more positive dynamics was registered in duration of myalgia and arthtralgia.

On the background of using LILR the duration of these symptoms was shortened twofold. The use of such therapy promotes an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay.

The objective is to define the approach to the treatment of joint diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine. Methods: clinical observation of the patients, diagnostics using the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods.

Results: A new approach to diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of articulation diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine was created.

Articulation diseases are one of the most common human illnesses. The causes of most of them are still not found out.

At present scientists associate the incidence of the disease with sex, age, environment, metabolism, immunity factor and the way of life of the patient.

Unfortunately the conventional treatment is followed by side effects and mostly causes only temporary improvement leaving the problem unsolved for many years.

In Chinese medicine arthritis and other joint diseases are defined as stagnation condition; the symptoms are: location and intensity of pain, extent of inflammation, size of the edema and extent of the organ dysfunction.

There are inner organism condition and outer environment factors which cause the joint diseases. This leads to a disorder of regeneration processes and metabolism in osseous tissue, tendon and cartilaginous tissues.

Our methods are based on studying the intensity of the pain syndrome by the duct of the channels around the joints.

Around each big joint from each side there are six channels. For example, around the hands joints there are lungs, colon, heart, small intestine, pericardium and three body parts 35 channels.

Around the feet articulations there are spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, urinary bladder, liver and gall bladder channels. All the channels surround the join and pain mostly begins in the location of the channel.

Our treatment takes into consideration the cause and pathogenesis of the joints and channels duct, determines Ying or Yang type by the syndromes outer-inner, heat-cold, excess-shortage and the main organism syndromes.

The found pathology determines the treatment. It goes the same regarding other joints. It often happens that the patient does not feel pain in an organ or system and the pain in the legs joints can signify a disorder in the stomach channel system.

The important role in treatment of such syndromes play acupuncture, Korean SutcziChimsur therapy, homoeopathy, herbal medicine and Ayurvedic treatment.

In severe cases correction with conventional medications is recommended. Only combination of all treatment and prevention methods can lead to positive results.

Knowing only the location of pain and the channels duct we can detect the organ or system pathology and indicate the treatment.

Gordeeva G. Rutenburg V. Bezhenar T. The advantages of simultaneous operations such as reduction of traumatic intervention, intraoperative and postoperative complications, less hospital stay and temporary disability and postoperative lethality are continuously proved.

Nevertheless the number of simultaneous operations with laparoscope methods remains as insignificant as 36 Programm Abstracts before their introduction.

Objective: To assess the possibilities of laparoscope surgery in women with gynecological disorders and renal cyst, to optimize the approaches of planned simultaneous laparoscope operations in gynecology.

Materials and Methods. Cystodenomectomy was was performed in 3 cases in 4 patients with ovary cystodenomas.

Coagulation of endometriosis focus was accomplished to 8 patients with external genital endometriosis I-II stages, which was diagnosed in the course of diagnostic laparoscopy 7 patients with isolated form and 1 in TPS combination.

No display any significant distinctions in these indexes. There were not any complications in postoperative period, it was typical.

No lethal outcome. No difference between average period of hospital treatment malingering operations and hospital treatment cause of laparoscopic hysterectomy or adnexectomy.

Therefore, we can note that application case: renal cyst of auxiliary simultant stages of surgical treatment of gynecologic pathology does not increase complication frequencies.

Performance of andovideosurgical malingering treatment in cases of gynecologic pathology has a number of features, connected with the choice of access.

For cysts localization in back surfaces or in lower kidney pole it is preferably to use retroperitoneoscopic access, and for cysts which situated on front surfaces or in upper pole and also parapelvical cysts localization - transperitonealic.

Therefore, in patients with indication for malingering surgical treatments of with renal cysts in combination with gynecologic pathology we recommend to use transperitonealic access.

Retroperitoneoscopic access might be justified only in cases when malingering diagnostic laparoscopia is needed.

Karabintseva L. According to a survey [19] Both the flag and the coat of arms of Volgograd Oblast include an image of The Motherland Calls , an 85 meter tall statue located in Volgograd.

Primary branches of economics are agriculture, food production, heavy industry, gas and petroleum refining.

The largest companies in the region include Volzhsky Pipe Plant , Volgogradenergosbyt a local electric power distribution company , OJSC Kaustik caustic soda manufacturer , Volzhsky Orgsintez a chemical plant.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First-level administrative division of Russia. Oblast in Southern, Russia.

Coat of arms. Main article: Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast. Largest cities or towns in Volgograd Oblast Russian Census.

See also: Category:Companies based in Volgograd Oblast. President of the Russian Federation. Gosstandart of the Russian Federation.

As of , no such law is in place. Administrative-Territorial Structure , p. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved March 31, December 19, Retrieved August 13, Sreda, Retrieved October 20, Subdivisions of Russia.

Federal subjects. Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol 1. Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions.

Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast. Authority control MusicBrainz : ece-4dee-bcc6-dae79e5acf7d. Hidden categories: Articles containing Russian-language text Articles with Russian-language sources ru CS1 Russian-language sources ru CS1 uses Russian-language script ru Articles with short description Coordinates on Wikidata Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November Commons category link from Wikidata Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers Use mdy dates from August Namespaces Article Talk.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Flag Coat of arms.

To obtain from the number of substances necessary components we used the methods of selective extraction, fractional crystallization, preparative paper and colomn chromatography, HPLH.

The allocated phenolic substances are represented by flavonoids, phenolcarbolic acids, coumarins, tannins. Coumarins are presented by oxy- and metoxy- derivatives: umbelliferone, aesculetin, scopoletin.

Among flavonoid classes flavanone, flavone, flavonol are presented which occur in the kind of aglycones and their O-and Cglycosides.

At additional replacement in these types of flavones oxy- and metoxy- groups form numbers of derivatives scutellarein 6-oxyapigenin , nornepetin 6-oxyluteolin.

At additional replacement in these types of connections at C-6 in plants of the species Centaurea a complicated complex of derivatives 6-oxykempferol and 6-oxyquercetin is synthesized.

Glycoside forms of studied flavonoids are presented by mono-, bi- and diglycosides, differing by the nature of sugars and their position in aglycone.

Flavones glycosides basically are presented by 7-O-monoglycosides, and 7-O-apioglycosides apiin, graveobioside.

Considering a complex use of already known medicinal raw material, and also for the purpose of revealing of new sources of raw material polysaccharides, plants of the specified sorts were allocated and studied.

The raw material leftovers after abstraction of polyphenolic substances, polysaccharides were consequently obtained by fractions: water-soluble polysaccharide complexes, pectin substances, hemicelluloses A and hemicelluloses B.

In all kinds of the fractions water-soluble polysaccharides complexes and pectin substances are prevailing. The maximum quantity of water-soluble polysaccharides complexes is found in the leaves of Pulmonaria angustifolia L.

Qualitative and quantitative monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide complexes of the investigated plants has been studied.

As a result of the conducted research the sources of polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides with versatile biological activity are offered: expectorant, diuretic, antiinflammatory and others.

Bubenchicova Yu. The existing SD contains raw material standardization only on such indicators as a moisture, aches, the maintenance of impurity, but the methods of qualitative and quantitative definition of the basic groups of biologically active substances are absent, so it does not allow to estimate objective of the quality of raw material.

Therefore we have carried out research for the purpose of system engineering of the estimation of quality of medicinal raw material.

The purpose of our research was working out techniques of standardization of medicinal raw material Chamomilla, Salvia, Potentilla, Viola , with the subsequent inclusion in SD, and also working out SD.

For qualitative detection of biologically active substances in investigated species we used the method of chromatography in a thin layer of a sorbent.

As a result we developed the techniques of qualitative detection of biologically active substances, such as flavonoids in the herb of Violet threecoloured, Violet field, the flowers of Chamomile and tannin substances in the rhizomes of Tormentil.

The flavonoid substances are one of groups of active substances of flowers Chamomile, herb of a Violet, leaves of a Sage.

For the quantitative estimation of the contents of the sum of flavonoids we used the differential spectrophotometric method based on the reaction of complex formation with aluminum chloride solution.

For the isolation of flavonoids extraction was attained till equilibrium. It was established that the maximum yield of flavonoids is reached in 45 minutes for the Violet herb, the flowers of Chamomile, the Sage leaves.

The sum definition of flavonoids was conducted to areas of nanometers which is removed for enouph from the spectrum of absorption of accompanying phenolic and other organic substances that are contained in extracts of raw material.

As a part of flavonoids in the studied plants the derivates of quercetin, kaempferol as mono- and biosids are contained, therefore as the standard sample we used the samples of rutin, cynaroside.

For the standardization of the rhizomes of Tormentil the technique of quantitative definition of the sum of tannins was developed; it is based on the ability of sedimentation of tannins by salts of heavy metals.

We studied the stages of the extraction of the sum of polysaccharides and the sedimentation conditions. Our research has allowed us to define the optimum conditions of extraction and sedimentation of water-soluble polysaccharide complexes.

Thus, on this basic of the conducted research the techniques of qualitative detection and quantitative definition of the basic group of biologically active substances which are included in modern SD were developed.

Erst seit knapp 10 Jahren erwachte neues Interesse am Vitamin D. Chuprikov I. Tarschinov A. Dsjuba V. Mischiev A. Nikolajev A.

Kolodashnaja E. Die wichtigsten Behandlungsmethoden sind die Amphetamin-Derivaten und Thymoleptika. Die Kinder vertragen solche Behandlung nicht immer gut, manchmal gibt es Nebenwirkungen.

Tarschinov verwendet. Insgesamt konnte die Prozedur von 30 bis 60 Minuten dauern. Als beste Beruhigungsmethode erwies sich, dass, nach unserer Bitte, die Mutter sich neben dem Kind auf pneumatische Manschetten hinlegt.

Bei Schulkindern sind die Hausaufgabenleistungen gestiegen, das Benehmen in der Schule mehr geordnet wurde. Wiederholte Behandlungskursen kann man einmal pro drei bzw.

Chuprikov N. Vassilevskaja B. Popovskij A. Duschka M. Sorokin N. Markanov S. Keljuschok M. Die Zahl von Schwimmprozeduren mit Delphinen schwank von 5 bis Bei manchen Kindern wurde die erste Begegnung mit Delphinen von Angst, Weinen und dem Wunsch, aus dem Schwimmbad wegzulaufen, und auf das Spiel zu verzichten, wahrgenommen.

Besonders krass wiesen dies die Kinder mit Autismus auf. Gleichzeitig wurden der Mittags- und Nachtschlaf besser geworden, Appetit hat sich auch verbessert.

Dies ist das wichtigste Argument zu Gunsten von Weiterexistenz und Weiterentwicklung der Delphintherapie.

Angelegenheiten der Delphintherapie werden im Delphinarium Odessa im April diskutieren werden, da dort die Internationale Konferenz stattfinden wird.

The disease is considered as an attempt of the organism to restore the disturbed balance. The activation of own regeneration mechanisms is in the base of health recovery principle.

For this the natural therapeutic methods are used: endoecological rehabilitation program, visceral massage, immunomodulating, antioxidant therapy, psychotherapy, hirudotherapy, phytotherapy, osteopathy, homeopathy, organotherapy, isopathic vaccine-like therapy, antihomotoxicology etc.

The problem of treatment of malignant neoplasms remains urgent today in spite of all successes of modern medicine. And what is more, 90 percent of the patients suffering from tumors die because of complications of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgical treatment.

As to its urgency, the development of methods for prevention of complications in the treatment of tumor diseases occupies one of the first places.

The age varied from 20 to 92 years. Eighty percent of the patients had the IV stage of disease with disseminated metastases, 20 percent of subjects had the III stage.

All patients received special treatment of tumors for the long time, one third of the patients was operated 28 Programm Abstracts earlier.

All patients showed pronounced symptoms of intoxication syndrome. The base of the administered treatment is formed by endoecological rehabilitation program, the main stage of which is hyperthermic intestinal dialysis method, patented by Ph.

Elena Donchenko, patent No. The effectiveness of the treatment was expressed in disappearance of symptoms of intoxication syndrome, resolution of remote metastases in the soft tissues during one month and recovery: disappearance of indications of tumor growth in 71 percent of cases.

Duration of the treatment is months. Duration of follow-up of the patients is from 8 months to 10 years. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is evidence of the need of further work in this direction, and safety, absence of side effects, intolerance make it possible to recommend this technology for more wide use.

Dorochov J. Cryotherapy can be classified on the basis of its clinical effect and as a function of the temperature parameters which affect the impact of the cold factor on tissue.

Cryotherapy: 1. Regenerative, 2. Destructive, 3. The aim of this type of cryotherapy is to bring about regeneration and functional reactivation at the treatment site.

Regenerative cryotherapy causes a reaction in the organism which is linked to local tissue irritation and manifests itself in an elimination of the pathogenic factors, regeneration of tissue, and restoration of functional competence.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters in the tissues is a very important point during regenerative cryotherapy since the therapeutic effect is directly linked to these parameters.

It can be employed to: 1. These include systemic and rheumatoid diseases of the heart i. If everyone but especially children would undergo prophylactic treatment of the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, pharynx and nasal mucosa using the method of regenerative cryotherapy, we would observe the following positive effects especially in children : - improvement of the protective functions of the organism - stimulation of the immune system.

We can assume, moreover, that the general risk of contracting systemic, rheumatoid, infectious allergic and oncological diseases, immune deficiency states, snoring and sleep apnoea syndrome - would be distinctly reduced.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters is an important point to be observed during regenerative cryotherapy since achievement of the desired therapeutic effect depends directly on these parameters.

On the basis of my extensive experience with cryotherapy, I have designed and patented German Patent Office in Munich a mobile cryotherapy unit suitable for use in medical practices.

With the aid of this unit, it is possible to keep tissue cooling under control, especially in the ears, nose and throat regions.

With its regenerative effects, cryotherapy opens up vistas for an alternative direction in medicine, namely regenerative medicine. Asfendijarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan Objective of this research was studying the condition of lipid peroxygenation LP in animals exposed to various concentrations of uranium ore dust DUO.

The materials and research methods Experiments were conducted in nonlinear rats. Inhalational influence by uranium ore dust was carried out in vitro, in special exposure chambers UIZ Experimental animals were divided into two testing groups.

Controlling for each testing group were the animals which were kept in identical exposure chambers, but were not exposed to DUO.

DUO inhalation was carried out during 5 days a week, for 4 hours per day continuously throughout days. The condition of the LP was estimated according to concentration of malondialdehyde MDA and superoxide dismutase SOD in lungs after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months from the beginning of the research.

Research results Results of the conducted series of research showed that at DUO influence on animals in a dose of 5 MCL, the level of MDA formation after 1 month from the influence beginning increased in comparison with the control group by During the next 2 months signs of MDA accumulation in lungs remain, but its accumulation was lower than on the 30th day of the observation.

Similar to the previous series of the observation, the steady effect of increase in MDA formation occurs after 4 months from the beginning of influences and specifies that the time threshold of priming in 3 and 4 months of influences is critical.

The main mechanism of protection of an organism from free radicals is enzyme of SOD. At that the expressiveness of this indicator depended on duration of influence of DUO.

At the tested animals decrease in activity of enzyme in all terms of experiment was observed, but the most considerable it was by the end 4 months of observation on Thus, the conducted researches testify that influence by the dust of uranium ore leads to an exhaustion of antioxidant systems, especially aggravated upon duration of the exposure.

Filimonova N. The modern psychosomatic medicine developed dramatically in the latest fifty years is not conceivable without psychoanalysis.

It owes psychoanalysis the stimulus for systematical study of psychosomatic interrelations in the disease process, a number of fundamental conceptions for theory and practice, which still remain the postulate and the ground of psychosomatics.

The available literature on psychoanalytical psychosomatics does not provide summarized systematized investigations of theoretical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

Therefore, the absence of systematical investigations in this field and importance of the problem for psychoanalytical psychotherapy determined the theme of the present work.

Innovation of the research. The present work is a first attempt so far to summarize rather few publications of domestic and foreign authors on psychosomatics.

Object of the research is a complex of theoretical aspects of psychoanalytical psychosmatics. The aim of the research is assessment of different psychoanalytical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

The following tasks were put forward: - To trace down the main directions and approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the problem of psychosomatics and to compare them on the basis of historical consideration; - To revise psychoanalytic theories of psychosomatics by S.

Freud; - To revise psychosomatic theories and models of S. Metodological postulates of the work are theories and conceptions of leading psychoanalytics: S.

Freud, F. Alexander, G. Ammon, O. Kernberg, H. Freyberger and others; and also leading foreign and domestic psychiatrists: V.

Broitigam, P. Kristian, M. Rad, B. Luban-Plozza, V. Krieger, K. Pederak-Hoffman, V. Podkorytov, A. Smulevich, V. Gindikin, Ya.

Obuhov and others. Methods of the research are theoretical study, comparison, systematization of classical and modern psychoanalytical and medical literature.

Practical significance of the work. And today it has the right to become a fundamental science dealing complexly with etiopathic processes, which occur in the patient and hence the treatment should be multifaceted, with consideration of pathogenesis and aetiology of the disease and individual peculiarities of the patient.

This approach for assessment and analysis of analytic conceptions and modern theories enabled to come to an important statement that psychosomatic diseases are determined by a fixation in the preoedipal stage of development with predomination of borderline level of the development of the psyche.

Galimzyanov V. Vasilkova A. At present we observe the growth of morbidity and expansion of its territorial borders.

The treatment of such patients must be complex. The analysis of a complex therapy showed a higher effectiveness when the treatment was started at early stages.

The etiotropic therapy implies an intake of Tetracycline antibiotics in advisable doses within three days after the elevated temperature was lowered.

The pathogenetic therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and its manifestations. In case of an expressed hemorrhagic syndrome and presence of thrombocytopenia the preparations, such as ascorutin, vicasol and ascorbic acid should be indicated.

A symptomatic therapy is indicated to all patients to relieve pain, improve sleep, correct hemodynamics.

Doxycycline is the most recommended medication for initial treatment of AFR in medium and severe cases.

Clinical experimental data of AFR pathogenetic study show the T-lymphocyte deficit, immune status depression, interferron, in conditions of hyperthermia.

In this connection during the last years we observe constant optimization of standard doxicyclintherapy in patients with ARF. In clinical practice of ARF treatment the effectiveness of interferon was demonstrated in combination with doxycycline and complexly with immunotropic preparations and combination of standard treatment 33 with inductors of interferon.

The combined action of doxycycline and interferon preparations resulted in restoration of normal homeostasis. Clinically, diminishing of prolonged ARF symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, tachycardia, eczantema was manifested, and consequently, reduction of disease duration and a shorter hospitalization of such patients was achieved.

Cycloferron was used by 0,3 g on 1,2,4,6,8 days once a day. In the result of indicated combined therapy there were discovered that the usage of complex therapy of ARF of interferron inductors with doxycycline may shorten the duration of clinical symptoms of this disease: fever, intoxication symptoms, may facilitate a sooner resolution of rash.

Such therapy leads to normalization of indicators of humoral-cellular immunity, phagocytosis, increases the concentration of immunoglobulins.

Investigation of immune status of patients with ARF revealed an immunodeficiency condition. In this connection we decided to use the preparation which had correcting action to the immune system of human being, that was imunofan, for complex treatment of ARF.

The treatment showed a positive effect of imunofan, enabling to reduce the duration of intoxication symptoms in AFR patients.

Imunofan possesses antiinflammatory, desintoxicational and immunomodulating effects. The usage of imunofan in clinic gave the possibility to prove its desintoxicational and hepatoprotective action.

In patients with severe AFR with prolong hyperthermia we observed expressed sympoms of intoxication.

Such symptoms as pain in muscles and joints might persist even after temperature normalization. In this connection during the convalescence, after normalization of temperature and rash regression the patients with AFR received the treatment of LILR.

The usage of lazertherapy accelerated diminishing of weakness, headache, and eczantema. Even more positive dynamics was registered in duration of myalgia and arthtralgia.

On the background of using LILR the duration of these symptoms was shortened twofold. The use of such therapy promotes an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay.

The objective is to define the approach to the treatment of joint diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine. Methods: clinical observation of the patients, diagnostics using the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods.

Results: A new approach to diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of articulation diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine was created.

Articulation diseases are one of the most common human illnesses. The causes of most of them are still not found out.

At present scientists associate the incidence of the disease with sex, age, environment, metabolism, immunity factor and the way of life of the patient.

Unfortunately the conventional treatment is followed by side effects and mostly causes only temporary improvement leaving the problem unsolved for many years.

In Chinese medicine arthritis and other joint diseases are defined as stagnation condition; the symptoms are: location and intensity of pain, extent of inflammation, size of the edema and extent of the organ dysfunction.

There are inner organism condition and outer environment factors which cause the joint diseases. This leads to a disorder of regeneration processes and metabolism in osseous tissue, tendon and cartilaginous tissues.

Our methods are based on studying the intensity of the pain syndrome by the duct of the channels around the joints.

Around each big joint from each side there are six channels. For example, around the hands joints there are lungs, colon, heart, small intestine, pericardium and three body parts 35 channels.

Around the feet articulations there are spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, urinary bladder, liver and gall bladder channels. All the channels surround the join and pain mostly begins in the location of the channel.

Our treatment takes into consideration the cause and pathogenesis of the joints and channels duct, determines Ying or Yang type by the syndromes outer-inner, heat-cold, excess-shortage and the main organism syndromes.

The found pathology determines the treatment. It goes the same regarding other joints. It often happens that the patient does not feel pain in an organ or system and the pain in the legs joints can signify a disorder in the stomach channel system.

The important role in treatment of such syndromes play acupuncture, Korean SutcziChimsur therapy, homoeopathy, herbal medicine and Ayurvedic treatment.

In severe cases correction with conventional medications is recommended. Only combination of all treatment and prevention methods can lead to positive results.

Knowing only the location of pain and the channels duct we can detect the organ or system pathology and indicate the treatment.

Gordeeva G. Rutenburg V. Bezhenar T. The advantages of simultaneous operations such as reduction of traumatic intervention, intraoperative and postoperative complications, less hospital stay and temporary disability and postoperative lethality are continuously proved.

Nevertheless the number of simultaneous operations with laparoscope methods remains as insignificant as 36 Programm Abstracts before their introduction.

Objective: To assess the possibilities of laparoscope surgery in women with gynecological disorders and renal cyst, to optimize the approaches of planned simultaneous laparoscope operations in gynecology.

Materials and Methods. Cystodenomectomy was was performed in 3 cases in 4 patients with ovary cystodenomas.

Coagulation of endometriosis focus was accomplished to 8 patients with external genital endometriosis I-II stages, which was diagnosed in the course of diagnostic laparoscopy 7 patients with isolated form and 1 in TPS combination.

No display any significant distinctions in these indexes. There were not any complications in postoperative period, it was typical.

No lethal outcome. No difference between average period of hospital treatment malingering operations and hospital treatment cause of laparoscopic hysterectomy or adnexectomy.

Therefore, we can note that application case: renal cyst of auxiliary simultant stages of surgical treatment of gynecologic pathology does not increase complication frequencies.

Performance of andovideosurgical malingering treatment in cases of gynecologic pathology has a number of features, connected with the choice of access.

For cysts localization in back surfaces or in lower kidney pole it is preferably to use retroperitoneoscopic access, and for cysts which situated on front surfaces or in upper pole and also parapelvical cysts localization - transperitonealic.

Therefore, in patients with indication for malingering surgical treatments of with renal cysts in combination with gynecologic pathology we recommend to use transperitonealic access.

Retroperitoneoscopic access might be justified only in cases when malingering diagnostic laparoscopia is needed.

Karabintseva L. Despite of great interest of scientists, the state and industry to the problems of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in patients with occupational diseases, the use phytopreparations is still insignificant.

Therefore the aim of our work was to investigate a factual use of herbal medications in treatment and rehabilitation of vibration disease and chronic silicosis.

Content-analysis of medical and sanatorium records of the patients with vibration and chronic silicosis showed that phytopreparations are used on the stage of resort rehabilitation.

Most of the patients were treated with phytotherapy in herbal lounges at rehabilitation centers. All infusions were made by local manufacturers.

Thus, the investigation in factual application of phytopreparations confirmed its inadequate use especially at the stages of prevention and treatment of occupational diseases.

However the consumer preferences among the patients and doctors demonstrated interest to phytopreparations.

The results of the conducted investigation as well as advantages of herbal medicines a low toxicity, their mildness and multifaceted effect require further researches of rational application of phytopreparations for occupational diseases.

Kiryanov N. Ezhova N. Strelkov L. Saburova D. Leon M. McKee V. Shkolnikov E. This has led to a substantial reduction in the population of the country.

Compared to other industrialised countries, over the past 20 years, mortality has been particularly high among working-age men, resulting in a 39 low life expectancy at birth among men.

If mortality rates in the future among men remain the same as they are today, only half of young men aged 20 will survive until age 60 years.

Since we have carried out a series of investigations of the high mortality among working-age men in a typical Russian city to the West of the Ural mountains.

This included both analysis of official statistics as well as epidemiological and sociological interview studies of live men and those dying in the period The factors associated with problem drinking among men in our study were closely related to socioeconomic circumstances.

Low educational level, being divorced and lack of full-time paid employment were particularly strongly linked to heavy drinking.

If these data could be applied to Russian Federation, this amount suggests that up to excess deaths could be avoided if hazardous alcohol consumption was eliminated.

Based on data from forensic autopsies which were undertaken on almost all deaths in this age group , medical experts and pathologists established that the most common category of cause of death was injuries, poisoning and violence; cardiovascular diseases was the next most common.

Other death causes were rare in occurrence. Thus, our research shows that high mortality in working-age men is associated in many cases with heavy alcohol drinking, and suggests that the adverse effects of alcohol could be diminished with education, availability of permanent job and family.

Smoking is also an important contributor to the very high mortality seen among working age men. It is necessary to develop and implement coordinated policies to reduce risk factors for serious ill health and death seen in the working age population in Russia.

These would include steps to reduce alcohol consumption as a whole and to reduce smoking. Steps also need to be taken to improve treatments for those with alcohol problems.

Most importantly, steps need to be taken to minimise the transmission of these dangerous behaviours to the next generation of Russian citizens.

Klepikova E. Krasnov O. Kolesnikova A. Ditretiophenyl 3- 3, 5 di-tret-butylhydrophenyl propyltiosulphonat sodium is crystal powder of white colour, with a specific smell and a bitterish taste.

In the Ufspectrum there is one maximum of absorption at nm. Ditretiophenyl possesses hydro properties: it is easily dissolve in water, dissolve in spirits and very little in chloroform and benzene.

These immunodepression activities have been tested on experimental model immunocomplex gromerynephrit. Thus, ditrethiofenyl the water-soluble compounds, showing in experimental models in vitro and in vivo expressed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection activities, can find application as a nontoxic immunodepressant.

Kobets Yu. On the different amount of irritant an organism answers with different quality of adaptative reactions.

In response to weak irritants general nonspecific reaction of training develops. The irritants of moderate force cause development of reaction of activating.

It is characterized by the raise of protective and regulatory systems of the organism. The purpose of our research was to develop the expert medical system, intended for the control and differential diagnostics of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of the organism in children with recurrent bronchitis RB , with the purpose of optimization of treatment under conditions of health resort.

For decision of the set problem the analysis of adaptative reactions AR was carried out by the signal indexes of leucocytic formula with the estimation of common levels of reactivity LR according to L.

Garkavi with co-authors in children from 7 to 14 years old, patients with RB at health resort. All children got traditional sanatorium-and-resort treatment with the use of climatic therapy, thalassotherapy, mud therapy and complex of preformation physical factors.

For all children procedures of low intensity low frequency physiotherapy, aeronotherapy , moderate intensity laser irradiation and procedures with strong effect circular douche, sodium chloride baths 42 Programm Abstracts were included in the complex of rehabilitation measures taking into account rehabilitative reactions on admission.

Control of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of children with RB in dynamics and estimation of efficiency of therapy was carried out with the help of the developed by us system ADAPT Analyser 1.

In other words against a background of treatment in children with RB a quiet activation with tense began to occur 3 times as much more frequently, that was clinically manifested by the reduction of exacerbation of bronchitis 1,8 times less for subsequent 6 months.

Tishchenko und die Analyse des vegetativen Nervensystems nach Baevsky. Die Norm ist 1. Bei den Patientinnen wurden die Erkrankungen des Atmungssystems nicht diagnostiziert.

Die Patienten wurden ambulant behandelt. Die Verbesserung sowohl des subjektiven als auch objektiven Zustandes kam nach dem ersten Behandlungstag.

All dies wurde auch in den Forschungen widergespiegelt. Die Anwendung der tetrapolaren Impedanz-Rheoplethysmographie nach M. Beseitigung oder Linderung eines der Symptome sind einer der Wege der Krankheitsbehandlung.

Krasnova A. Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakstan Urgency. Diabetes Milletus DM remains one of the urgent problems of medicine, for the last years it has become the significant one.

WHO considers it to be a non-infectious epidemy of the 20th century. In such patients a painless form of myocardial infarction MI prevailed resulted from presence of autonomous diabetic neuropathy, as well as transmural or macrofoccal myocardium affection.

To study the extent of stenoses due to atherosclerotic process. Materials and methods. Results and discussion. Over the last 2 years in Almaty muncicipal clinical hospital patients died from MI, in patients DM was observed that accounted for Heart mass was from to gr.

The degree of right and left arteries stenoses was different. Significant differences on clinical, instrumental ECG parameters MI spread, localization, complications and autopsy data spread of myocardium necrosis focus, stenoses of right and left coronary arteries, heart mass, thickness of left ventricle wall were not marked at analysis of clinical case- histories of the died patients.

Conclusions: 1. Stenoses of the left coronary artery prevailed over the right one. Significant differences during MI in patients with DM and in patients without disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were not revealed.

One of the leading places in development of diseases occupies toxoplasma gondii, whose spread is overwhelming. It causes practically all major contemporary diseases: coronary vascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, neuropsychic diseases and numerous pathologies of digestion, the musculoskeletal system, urinary tract and urinoexcretory ways and many others.

Atherosclerosis is very common and until now the medicine has attributed cholesterol to its cause. Despite of this no single patient in the world has been healed from atherosclerosis and other coronary vascular pathology.

However over the last decade a virus nature of this pathology has been broadly debated. Then why does antitoxoplasma treatment prevent the progression of the atherosclerosis?

Why the medications that work against toxoplasm are even by the conventional medicine are called antiarrhythmics. How to explain that antiparasitary preparations reverse the development of pathology, restore the correct heart rhythm although the blame is laid on cholesterol and viruses which are not sensitive to these preparations?

This might be applied to other spheres and in particular to neuropsychic diseases. As an example, schizophrenia is cured with antitoxoplasma preparations whilst it is not acknowledged as its cause.

It seems that it will not be possible to ignore the problem of toxoplasm in future. Professor Flegr from 46 Programm Abstracts Karlovy University in Prague testified that toxoplasm so negatively affects car drivers that they are in 2,7 times more susceptible to accidents.

The researches including Americans Gloria Mender, Kevin Lafferti showed that due to toxoplasm exposure the characters of nations change.

Ultimately Prof. Glenn Makkonki, Univesity of Leeds demonstrated at a biochemical level the process of the development of schizophrenia through neurotransmitter dopamine.

The spread of toxoplasm is aggressive and there is no reliable diagnosis. There are no preparations that meet the necessary requirements.

The existing medications enlist a couple of preparations to which toxoplasm promptly adapts. This makes the situation even more serious considering the fact that the parasite prevails in an encysted form.

Kulishova V. Putsenko L. Baranova O. As the performance results there are five patents, five defended theses, two monographs.

The group of scientists became laureates of the Prize established by the Administration of Altai Region in the field of science and technique.

GMT is referred to the methods with a wide scope of therapeutical activities: immunomodulating, hypotensive, regeneratory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bacteriostatic, sedative, and adaptive ones.

GMT produces vigorating effect, improves mental and physical productivity, quickly replenishes the body after physical and nervous strain and raises functional reserves.

Complementation a complex treatment of hypertension with GMT renders a proved correction influence on central and cerebral hemodynamics, normalizes vegetative status, and enables cut dose of medications by half.

GMT application for secondary prevention of AH allows correcting such risk factors as hypercoagulation and hyperlipedimia. The use of GMT in a complex treatment of menopausal syndrome results in a manifested clinical effect, which displayed in a qualitative reduction of flushes, sweating, blood pressure stabilization, improved night sleep, decrease of dizziness, positive cerebral hemodynamics, normalization of vegetative and psychoemotional status.

A definite experience on GMT use for a complex treatment and prevention of peptic ulcer disease has been gained.

Application of this non-medication therapy enables to obtain 47 a better reparative and anti-recurrent effects compared to the control group.

Taking in account that PUD is related to psychosomatic illnesses we would like to stress the positive influence of GMT on psychoemotional status, which manifested in evident reduction of anxiety, depression and increased vitality and optimism.

A special note required on GMT application in oncological patients. The experience of numerous local oncological centers testifies that the magnetic field produces sanogenic and immunomodulating effects in the organism, and exposes tumor cells to a direct destructive effect.

The researches conducted in Altai Oncological Centre reported an improvement of the therapeutical result when GMT is added to chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical treatment in patients with breast, lung, stomach and genital cancer.

We carried out clinical researches on GMT influence on involution of myomatous nodes in women of reproductive age. Therefore GMT is a comparatively new direction in physiotherapy, which possesses a multifaceted activity.

Clinical researches confirm its beneficial influence on the organism and application feasibility for a number of diseases. No doubt, the method requires further assessment, even more rigorous clinical approbation and introduction in medical practice.

As a results of studies the chemical composition of a whole series of medicinal plants were isolated more than substances simple phenols, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids , among which are new 20 compounds.

The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was carried out with the use of UV-, NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, different chemical transformations.

Kurkin, ; There were established relationships between of the spectral and pharmacological activities of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and of their chemical structures.

Besides, in accordingly with new chemical classification of the medicinal plants V. Kurkin, there were introduced in the pharmacognosy so classes of biologically active phenolic compounds as xanthones and quinones.

The above-mentioned textbook includes the description of a whole series of the new medicinal plants, which contain the phenolic compounds: Echinacea purpurea L.

In the present time the Pharmacopoeia of Russia contains about 30 medicinal plants, which are attributed to the flavonoids as the leader group of biologically active compounds.

Besides, in the case of 25 medicinal plants, contained essential oil, saponins and other substances, the flavonoids are interesting as biologically active compounds, namely: Tanacetum vulgare L.

In the present paper are discussed also the actual aspects of the modern standardization of the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

The new possibilities for the development of pharmacognosy gives the use of the thin layer chromatography, the high performance liquid chromatography, UV-, UR-, 1H-NMR-, 13C-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and other modern chemical, physical-chemical and spectral methods.

The modern standardization must be based on the use of standard samples in the analytical methods for purpose of the identification and quantitative determination of biologically active compounds in the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

In the course of our investigations there were proposed the series of standard samples for purpose of the standardization of Rhodiola rosea L.

The phenylpropanoids are perspective biologically active compounds of medicinal plants which are of the great interest as the sources of the tonic, immunostimulating, adaptogenic, antioxidative and hepatoprotective phytopharmaceuticals.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast. Largest cities or towns in Volgograd Oblast Russian Census. See also: Category:Companies based in Volgograd Oblast.

President of the Russian Federation. Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. As of , no such law is in place. Administrative-Territorial Structure , p.

Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved March 31, December 19, Retrieved August 13, Sreda, Retrieved October 20, Subdivisions of Russia.

Federal subjects. Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol 1. Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions.

Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast. Authority control MusicBrainz : ece-4dee-bcc6-dae79e5acf7d. Hidden categories: Articles containing Russian-language text Articles with Russian-language sources ru CS1 Russian-language sources ru CS1 uses Russian-language script ru Articles with short description Coordinates on Wikidata Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November Commons category link from Wikidata Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers Use mdy dates from August Namespaces Article Talk.

When this is done, the total Cs deposit from the accident is found to be approximately 40 PBq Table 8. Dernovichi Savici Pirki Dovlyady The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the north-northeast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

In some areas contamination was comparable to that in the Central area; deposition densities even reached 5 MBq m2 in some villages of the Mogilev and Bryansk regions.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located km to the northeast of the reactor. Contamination there came from the same radioactive cloud that caused contamination in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area as a result of rainfall on April.

The Cs deposition density was, however, lower in this area, generally less than kBq m2. The Cs deposition was highest within the km-radius area surrounding the reactor, known as the km zone.

Deposition densities exceeded 1, kBq m2 40 Ci km2 in this zone and also in some areas of the near zone to the west and northwest of the reactor, in the Gomel, Kiev and Zhitomir regions Figure VII.

Surface ground deposition of strontium released in the Chernobyl accident [I1]. Surface ground deposition of plutonium and plutonium released in the Chernobyl accident at levels exceeding 3.

Estimated surface ground deposition in Belarus and western Russia of iodine released in the Chernobyl accident [B25, P19].

Surface ground deposition of caesium released in Europe after the Chernobyl accident [D13].

During the first weeks after the accident, most of the activity deposited on the ground consisted of short-lived radionuclides, of which I was the most important radiologically.

As indicated in paragraph 35, these maps are based on the limited number of measurements of I deposition density available in the former Soviet Union, and they use Cs measurements as a guide in areas where I was not measured.

These maps must be regarded with caution, as the ratio of the I to Cs deposition densities was found to vary in a relatively large range, at least in Belarus.

Interhemispheric transfer also occurred to a small extent through human activities, such as shipping of foods or materials to the southern hemisphere.

Therefore, only very low levels of radioactive materials originating from the Chernobyl accident have been present in the biosphere of the southern hemisphere, and the resulting doses have been negligible.

Deposition of 90Sr was mostly limited to the near zone of the accident. Only a few separate sites with 90Sr deposition density in the range kBq m2 were found in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, i.

The environmental behaviour of deposited radionuclides depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide considered, on the type of fallout i.

Special attention will be devoted to I, Cs and 90Sr and their pathways of exposure to humans. Deposition can occur on the ground or on water surfaces.

The terrestrial environment will be considered first. Information on the deposition of plutonium isotopes is not as extensive because of difficulties in detecting these radionuclides.

The only area with plutonium levels exceeding 4 kBq m2 was located within the km zone Figure IX. In the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, the ,Pu deposition density ranged from 0.

At Korosten, located in Ukraine about km southwest of the Chernobyl power plant, where the Cs deposition density was about kBq m2, the ,Pu deposition density due to the Chernobyl accident derived from data in [H8] is found to be only about 0.

Terrestrial environment 2. Remainder of northern and southern hemisphere As shown in Table 5, there are also other areas, in Europe, where the Cs deposition density exceeded 37 kBq m2, notably, the three Scandinavian countries Finland, Norway and Sweden , Austria and Bulgaria.

Small amounts of radiocaesium and of radioiodine penetrated the lower stratosphere of the northern hemisphere during the first few days after the accident [J6, K43].

Subsequently, transfer of radiocaesium to the lower atmospheric layers of the southern hemisphere may have occurred as a result of interhemispheric air movements from the northern to the southern stratosphere, followed by subsidence in the troposphere [D11].

However, radioactive contamination was not detected in the southern hemisphere D. For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure of humans is the transfer of the amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

The amounts deposited on vegetation are retained with a half-time of about two weeks before removal to the ground surface and to the soil.

Long-term transfer of I from deposition on soil to dietary products that are consumed several weeks after the deposition has occurred need not be considered, because I has a physical half-life of only 8 days.

Radionuclides deposited on soil migrate downwards and are partially absorbed by plant roots, leading in turn to upward migration into the vegetation.

These processes should be considered for long-lived radionuclides, such as Cs and 90Sr. The rate and direction of the radionuclide migration into the soil-plant pathway are determined by a number of natural phenomena, including relief features, the type of plant, the structure and makeup of the soil, hydrological conditions and weather patterns, particularly at the time that deposition occurred.

The vertical migration of Cs and 90Sr in soil of different types of natural meadows has been rather slow, and the greater fraction of radionuclides is still contained in its upper layer cm.

The effective half-time of clearance from the root layer in meadows cm in mineral soils has been estimated to range from 10 to 25 years for Cs and to be 1.

For a given initial contamination of soil, the transfer from soil to plant varies with time as the radionuclide is removed from the root layer and as its availability in exchangeable form changes.

The Cs content in plants was maximum in , when the contamination was due to direct deposition on aerial surfaces.

In , Cs in plants was 36 times lower than in , as the contamination of the plants was then mainly due to root uptake.

Since , the transfer coefficients from deposition to plant have continued to decrease, although the rate of decrease has slowed: from to , the transfer coefficients of Cs decreased by 1.

Later on, ageing processes led to similar mobility values for Cs from the Chernobyl accident and from global fallout. The variability of the transfer coefficient from deposition to pasture grass for Cs is indicated in Table 9 for natural meadows in the Polissya area of Ukraine [S40].

The type of soil and the water content both have an influence on the transfer coefficient, the values of which were found to range from 0.

The variability as a function of time after the accident in the Russian Federation has been studied and reported on by Shutov et al.

Contrary to Cs, it seems that the exchangeability of Sr does not keep decreasing with time after the accident and may even be increasing [B36, S41].

In the Russian Federation, no statistically significant change was found in the 90Sr transfer coefficient from deposition to grass during the first 4 to 5 years following the accident [S41].

This is attributable to two competing processes: a 90Sr conversion from a poorly soluble form, which characterized the fuel particles, to a soluble form, which is easily assimilated by plant roots, and b the vertical migration of 90Sr into deeper layers of soil, hindering its assimilation by vegetation [S41].

The contamination of milk, meat and potatoes usually accounts for the bulk of the dietary intake of Cs. However, for the residents of rural regions, mushrooms and berries from forests occupy an important place.

The decrease with time of the Cs concentrations in those foodstuffs has been extremely slow, with variations from one year to another depending on weather conditions [I22].

Aquatic environment Deposition of radioactive materials also occurred on water surfaces. Deposition on the surfaces of seas and oceans resulted in low levels of dose because the radioactive materials were rapidly diluted into very large volumes of water.

In rivers and small lakes, the radioactive contamination resulted mainly from erosion of the surface layers of soil in the watershed, followed by runoff in the water bodies.

In the km zone, where relatively high levels of ground deposition of 90Sr and Cs occurred, the largest surface water contaminant was found to be 90Sr, as Cs was strongly adsorbed by clay minerals [A15, M19].

Much of the 90Sr in water was found in dissolved form; low levels of plutonium isotopes and of Am were also measured in the rivers of the km zone [A15, M19].

The contribution of aquatic pathways to the dietary intake of Cs and 90Sr is usually quite small. However, the Cs concentration in the muscle of predator fish, like perch or pike, may be quite high in lakes with long water retention times, as found in Scandinavia and in Russia [H16, K47, R21, T23].

For example, concentration of Cs in the water of lakes Kozhanyand Svyatoe located in severely contaminated part of the Bryansk region of Russia was still high in because of special hydrological conditions: Bq l1 of Cs and 0.

Concentration of Cs in the muscles of crucian Carassius auratus gibeio sampled in the lake Kozhany was in the range of kBq kg1 and in pike Esox lucius in the range kBq kg1 [K47, T23].

Activity of Cs in inhabitants of the village Kozhany located along the coast of lake Kozhany measured by whole-body counters in summer was 7.

Taking into account seasonal changes in the Cs whole-body activity, the average annual internal doses were estimated to be 0. Also, the relative importance of the aquatic pathways, in comparison to terrestrial pathways, may be high in areas downstream of the reactor site where ground deposition was small.

Improper, unstable operation of the reactor allowed an uncontrollable power surge to occur, resulting in successive steam explosions that severely damaged the reactor building and completely destroyed the reactor.

It is worth noting, however, that the doses were estimated on the basis of environmental and thyroid or body measurements and that knowledge of the quantities released was not needed for that purpose.

The three main areas of contamination, defined as those with Cs deposition density greater than 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2 , are in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine; they have been designated the Central, GomelMogilev-Bryansk and Kaluga-Tula-Orel areas.

The Central area is within about km of the reactor, predominantly to the west and northwest. The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the northnortheast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located in the Russian Federation, about km to the northeast of the reactor. All together, as shown in Table 7 and in Figure XI, territories with an area of approximately , km2 were contaminated in the former Soviet Union.

Outside the former Soviet Union, there were many areas in northern and eastern Europe with Cs deposition density in the range kBq m2.

These regions represent an area of 45, km2, or about one third of the contaminated areas found in the former Soviet Union. For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure to humans is the transfer of amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed by humans within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

For long-lived radionuclides such as Cs, the long-term transfer processes from soil to foods consumed several weeks or more after deposition need to be considered.

It is convenient to classify into three categories the populations who were exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident: a the workers involved in the accident, either during the emergency period or during the clean-up phase; b inhabitants of evacuated areas; and c inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated.

The available information on the doses received by the three categories of exposed populations will be presented and discussed in turn.

Doses from external irradiation and from internal irradiation will be presented separately. The external exposures due to gamma radiation were relatively uniform over all organs and tissues of the body, as their main contributors were TeI, I and BaLa for evacuees, Cs and Cs for inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated, and radionuclides emitting photons of moderatelyhigh energy for workers.

These external doses from gamma radiation have been expressed in terms of effective dose. With regard to internal irradiation, absorbed doses in the thyroid have been estimated for exposures to radioiodines and effective doses have been estimated for exposures to radiocaesiums.

Doses have in almost all cases been estimated by means of physical dosimetrytechniques. Biological indicators of dose has been mainly used, within days or weeks after the accident, to estimate doses received by the emergency workers, who received high doses from external irradiation and for whom dosemeters were either not operational nor available.

Unlike physical dosimetry, biological dosimetric methods are generally not applicable to doses below 0. Soon after the accident, biological dosimetry is usually based on the measurement of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations dicentric and centric rings.

By comparing the rate of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings with a standard dose-effect curve obtained in an experiment in vitro, it is possible to determine a radiation dose.

However, the use of dicentric as well as other aberrations of the unstable type for the purposes of biological dosimetry is not always possible, since the frequency of cells containing such aberrations declines in time after exposure.

For retrospective dosimetry long after the exposure, biological dosimetry can be a complement to physical dosimetry, but only techniques where radiation damage to the biological indicator is stable and persistent and not subject to biochemical, physiological or immunological turnover, repair or depletion are useful.

In that respect, the analysis of stable aberrations translocations , the frequency of which remains constant for a long time after exposure to radiation, is promising.

The probability of occurrence of stable translocations and unstable dicentrics aberrations after exposure is the same.

However, translocations are not subjected to selection during cell proliferation, in contrast to dicentrics.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH or Fast-FISH in conjunction with chromosome painting may be useful in retrospective dosimetry for several decades after exposure.

Other biological or biophysical techniques for measuring doses are electron spin resonance ESR or opticallystimulated luminescence OSL. These techniques are used in retrospective dosimetry to measure the radiation damage accumulated in biological tissue such as bone, teeth, fingernails and hair.

Also, the gene mutation glycophorin A that is associated with blood cells may be used. Most of them were at the reactor site at the time of the accident or arrived at the plant during the few first hours.

The numbers of accident witnesses and emergency workers are listed in Table According to Table 10, on the morning of 26 April, about emergency workers were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant.

The workers involved in various ways in the accident can be divided into two groups: a those involved in emergency measures during the first day of the accident 26 April , who will be referred to as emergency workers in this Annex, and b those active in at the power station or in the zone surrounding it for the decontamination work, sarcophagus construction and other clean-up operations.

This second group of workers is referred to as recovery operation workers in this Annex, although the term liquidator gained common usage in the former Soviet Union.

The power plant personnel wore only film badges that could not register doses in excess of 20 mSv. All of these badges were overexposed.

The firemen had no dosimeters and no dosimetric control. Dose rates on the roof and in the rooms of the reactor block reached hundreds of gray per hour.

Measured exposure rates in the vicinity of the reactor at the time of the accident are shown in Figure XII.

Emergency workers Measured exposure rates in air on 26 April in the local area of the Chernobyl reactor. The highest doses were received by the firemen and the personnel of the power station on the night of the accident.

Some symptoms of acute radiation sickness were observed in workers. Following clinical tests, an initial diagnosis of acute radiation sickness was made in of these persons.

On further analysis of the clinical data, acute radiation sickness was confirmed later in in individuals. The most important exposures were due to external irradiation relatively uniform whole-body gamma irradiation and beta irradiation of extensive body surfaces , as the intake of radionuclides through inhalation was relatively small except in two cases [U4].

Because all of the dosimeters worn by the workers were overexposed, they could not be used to estimate the gamma doses received via external irradiation.

The estimated ranges of doses for the emergency workers with confirmed acute radiation sickness are given in Table Forty-one of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation of less than 2.

Ninety-three patients received higher doses and had more severe acute radiation sickness: 50 persons with doses between 2.

The skin doses from beta exposures evaluated for eight patients with acute radiation sickness ranged from 10 to 30 times the dose from whole-body gamma radiation [B10].

Internal doses were determined from thyroid and wholebody measurements performed on the persons under treatment, as well as from urine analysis and from post-mortem analysis of organs and tissues.

For most of the patients, more than 20 radionuclides were detectable in the whole-body gamma measurements; however, apart from the radioiodines and radiocaesiums, the contribution to the internal doses from the other radionuclides was negligible [U4].

Internal doses evaluated for 23 persons who died of acute radiation sickness are shown in Table The lung and thyroid doses, calculated to the time of death, are estimated to have ranged from 0.

Some of the low thyroid doses may be due to the fact that stable iodine pills were distributed among the reactor staff less than half an hour after the beginning of the accident.

It is also speculated that the internal doses received by the emergency workers who were outdoors were much lower than those received by the emergency workers who stayed indoors.

For comparison purposes, the estimated external doses are also presented in Table The external doses, which range from 2.

Internal dose reconstruction was also carried out for surviving emergency workers who were examined in Moscow; the results are presented in Table The average doses were estimated to vary from 36 mGy to bone marrow to mGy to bone surfaces, the maximum doses being about 10 times greater than the average doses.

Also, thyroid doses were estimated for the emergency workers admitted to Hospital 6 in Moscow within 34 weeks after the accident Table 15 ; most of the thyroid doses were less than 1 Gy, but three exceeded 20 Gy.

The thyroid doses due to internal exposures are estimated to be in the range from several percent to several hundred percent of the external whole-body doses.

The median value of the ratio of the thyroid to the whole-body dose was estimated to be 0. Recovery operation workers About , persons civilian and military have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.

Of those, about , were militaryservicemen [C7]. The principal tasks carried out by the recovery operation workers liquidators included decontamination of the reactor block, reactor site, and roads and construction of the sarcophagus MayNovember , a settlement for reactor personnel MayOctober , the town of Slavutich , , waste repositories , and dams and water filtration systems July-September , [K19].

During the entire period, radiation monitoring and securityoperations were also carried out. Of particular interest are the , recoveryoperation workers who were employed in the km zone in , as it is in this period that the highest doses were received; information concerning these workers is provided in Table About half of these persons were civilian and half were military servicemen brought in for the special and shortterm work.

The workers were all adults, mostly males aged years. The construction workers were those participating in building the sarcophagus around the damaged reactor.

Other workers included those involved in transport and security, scientists and medical staff. The distributions of the external doses for the categories of workers listed in Table 16, as well as for the emergency workers and accident witnesses, are shown in Table The remainder of the recovery operation workers about , , who generally received lower doses, includes those who worked inside the km zone in a small number of workers are still involved , those who decontaminated areas outside the km zone, and other categories of people.

In a state registry of persons exposed to radiation was established at Obninsk. This included not only recovery operation workers but evacuees and residents of contaminated areas as well.

The registry existed until the end of Starting in , national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine replaced the all-union registry.

The number of recovery operation workers in the national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine is listed in Table Some , workers from these countries were involved in the years To this must be added the 17, recovery operation workers recorded in the registries of the Baltic countries, including 7, from Lithuania, 5, from Latvia and 4, from Estonia [K13].

More detailed information on the registries is provided in Chapter IV. This number is likely to increase in the future, as some organizations may not have provided all their information to the central registries; in addition, individuals may on their own initiative ask to be registered in order to benefit from certain privileges.

However, the number of recoveryoperation workers recorded in the national registries is well below the figure of about ,, which corresponds to the number of people who have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators.

The doses to the recovery operation workers who participated in mitigation activities within two months after the accident are not known with much certainty.

Attempts to establish a dosimetric service were inadequate until the middle of June. TLDs and condenser-type dosimeters that had been secured by 28 April were insufficient in number and, in the case of the latter type, largely nonfunctioning, and records were lost when the dosimetric service was transferred from temporary to more permanent quarters.

In June, TLD dosimeters were available in large numbers, and a databank of recorded values could be established. From July onwards, individual dose monitoring was performed for all non-military workers, using either TLDs or film dosimeters.

The dose limits for external irradiation varied with time and with the category of personnel. According to national regulations established before the accident [M1], for civilian workers, during , the dose limit, 0.

The maximum dose allowed during the year was, therefore, 0. In , the annual dose limits for civilian personnel were lowered to 0.

However, a dose of up to 0. In , the annual dose limit was set at 0. From onwards, the annual dose limit was set at 0. For military workers, a dose limit of 0.

From onwards, the dose limits were the same for military and civilian personnel. Methods b and c were used for the civilian workers before June , when the number of individual dosimeters was insufficient, and for the majority of the military personnel at any time.

For example, effective doses from external irradiation have been reconstructed by physical means for the staff of the reactor, as well as for the workers who had been detailed to assist them, exposed from 26 April to 5 May [K19].

Personnel location record cards filled in by workers were analysed by experts who had reliable information on the radiation conditions and who had personally participated in ensuring the radiation safety of all operations following the accident.

Using this method, two values were determined: the maximum possible dose and the expected dose. The maximum possible effective doses ranged from less than 0.

It seems that in most cases the maximum possible effective doses are those that were officially recorded. The main sources of uncertainty associated with the different methods of dose estimation were as follows: a individual dosimetry: incorrect use of the dosimeters inadvertent or deliberate actions leading to either overexposure or underexposure of the dosimeters ; b group dosimetry: very high gradient of exposure rate at the working places at the reactor site; and c time-and-motion studies: deficiencies in data on itineraries and time spent at the various working places, combined with uncertainties in the exposure rates.

The registry data show that the annual averages of the officially recorded doses decreased from year to year, being about mSv in , mSv in , 30 mSv in , and 15 mSv in [I34, S14, T9].

It is, however, difficult to assess the validity of the results that have been reported for a variety of reasons, including a the fact that different dosimeters were used by different organizations without any intercalibration; b the high number of recorded doses very close to the dose limit; and c the high number of rounded values such as 0.

However, the doses do not seem to have been systematicallyoverestimated, because biological dosimetry performed on limited numbers of workers produced results that are also very uncertain but compatible nonetheless with the physical dose estimates [L18].

Using the numbers presented in Table 18, the collective effective dose is estimated to be about 40, man Sv. A particular group of workers who may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is made up of the 1, helicopter pilots who were involved in mitigation activities at the power plant in the first three months after the accident [U15].

The doses to pilots were estimated using either personal dosimeters or, less reliably, calculations in which the damaged reactor was treated as a collimated point source of radiation [U15].

The doses obtained by calculation were checked against the results derived from the personal dosimeters for about pilots.

That comparison showed a discrepancy of a less 0. The simplification used to describe the origin of the radiation emitted from the damaged reactor is the main source of uncertainty in the assessment of the doses received by the helicopter pilots.

The average dose estimates are 0. Another group of workers that may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is the workers from the Kurchatov Institute, a group that includes those who were assigned special tasks inside the damaged unit 4 before and after the construction of the sarcophagus [S36].

A number of nuclear research specialists worked in high-radiation areas of the sarcophagus, without formal recording of doses, on their own personal initiative, and were exposed to annual levels greater than the dose limit of 0.

Doses for this group of 29 persons have been estimated using electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel as well as stable and unstable chromosome aberration techniques [S42, S47].

It was found that 14 of those 29 persons received doses lower than 0. Additional analyses by means of the FISH technique for three of those nuclear research specialists resulted in doses of 0.

Biological dosimetry. Chromosome aberration levels among Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed in a number of additional studies.

A good correlation was found, however, for group rather than individual doses. Blood samples of 52 Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed by FISH [S32] and simultaneously by conventional chromosome analysis.

Based on FISH measurements, individual biodosimetry estimates between 0. Pooled data for the total group of 52 workers provided an average estimate of 0.

For a group of 34 workers with documented doses, the mean dose estimate of 0. Comparison between the conventional scoring and FISH analyses showed no significant difference.

In a study of Estonian workers, Littlefield et al. In conclusion, FISH does not currently appear to be a sufficiently sensitive and specific technique to allow the estimation of individual doses in the low dose range received by the majority of recovery operation workers.

Lazutka et al. When transformed data were analysed by analysis of variance, alcohol abuse made a significant contribution to total aberrations, chromatid breaks, and chromatid exchanges.

Smoking was associated with frequency of chromatid exchanges, and age was significantly associated with rates of chromatid exchanges and chromosome exchanges [L31].

In another study [S37], the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated in more than recovery operation workers.

Blood samples were taken from several days to three months after exposure to radiation. The mean frequencies of aberrations for different groups of workers were associated with doses varying from 0.

Glycophorin A assay GPA was used as a possible biological dosimeter on subjects from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with recorded physical dose estimates [B17].

Although a slight increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with loss of the GPA allele was seen among these subjects compared to control subjects from the same countries, this difference was not significant.

The pooled results indicate that the average exposures of these workers were unlikely to greatly exceed mGy, the approximate minimum radiation dose detectable by this assay.

In addition to effective doses from external gamma irradiation, recovery operation workers received skin doses from external beta irradiation as well as thyroid and effective doses from internal irradiation.

The dose to unprotected skin from beta exposures is estimated to have been several times greater than the gamma dose. Because of the abundance of I and of shorterlived radioiodines in the environment of the reactor during the accident, the recovery operation workers who were on the site during the first few weeks after the accident may have received substantial thyroid doses from internal irradiation.

Information on the thyroid doses is very limited and imprecise. From 30 April through 7 May , in vivo thyroid measurements were carried out on more than recovery operation workers.

These in vivo measurements, which are measurements of the radiation emitted by the thyroid using detectors held or placed against the neck, were used to derive the I thyroidal contents at the time of measurement.

The thyroid doses were derived from the measured I thyroidal contents, using assumptions on the dynamics of intake of I and short-lived radioiodines and on the possible influence of stable iodine prophylaxis.

The average thyroid dose estimate for those workers is about 0. The thyroid doses from internal irradiation are estimated to range from several percent to several hundred percent of the effective doses from external irradiation.

The median value of the ratio of the internal thyroid dose to the external effective dose was estimated to be 0. It is important to note that information on the influence of stable iodine prophylaxis is limited, as iodine prophylaxis among the recoveryoperation workers was not mandatory nor was it proposed to everybody.

The decision to take stable iodine for prophylactic reasons was made by the individual worker or by the supervisor.

The results of interviews of workers including emergencyworkers and recoveryoperation workers who arrived at the plant at the ealy stage of the accident concerning the time when theytook stable iodine for prophylaxis is presented in Table The internal doses resulting from intakes of radionuclides such as 90Sr, Cs, Cs, ,Pu, and others have been assessed for about recovery operation workers who were monitored from April to April [K2, K8, P13, S11].

The majority of them were staff of the power plant who took part in the recovery work starting on days 3 and 4 after the accident.

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